WG
THEORY

**ABSTRACT**

In this synopsis A theory called the WG theory proves
with evidence that...

·
Light propagates in the medium called Dark matter.
It’s math form is a kind of standing wave i.e. the light ray is a simple phenomenon of
interference between a medium wave and pulsing particles.

·
Strong
interaction result from the macro pressure effect of Dark matter.

·
Dark
matter as well as all elementary particles is composed of a type of original
gravitational particle.

The WG theory also answers some important
problems associated with modern physics such as...

·
Mass-energy.

·
A model
of stable particles.

·
The
mechanism of electromagnetic interaction.

·
The
essence of light propagation.

· The intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of electric charge.

Professor
Tong zheng rong was as a physical research professor and the Director of the
Basic Physics Research Department of the D.R.I. in his homeland China. His book <Dark Matter ·Strong Interaction ·Micro Black hole> a Chinese edition was
published by < Shanghai Science and
Technology Literature Public Society>
in March 1996 “SBN-7-5439-0823-9/0.106 1996.3”. In November 1996 he
presented some of his findings to the National Physical Conference of General
Relativity and Astrology Gravity Associations in China.

According to the great discovery
of the “dark matter” by Switzerland astronomer Ziviky and qualitative and
quantitative verifying in this paper, a very important fact has been confirmed
that there is a gravitational matter filling all the universal space and
permeating into micro-world which actually is composed of the original
gravitational particle with mass grade of 3.64x10-42 g, we call it the WG briefly.

More evidence proving WG theory to be true has been fund in
further research. The mass of WG (m_{W} = 3.636 x 10^{-42}
g) worked out based on the principle that all particles are the “droplet
” under the great pressure effect source from
the gravitational dark matter in all universe space is same grade order
with the value from observation on the double star ( In 1969 Feinbertg 10^{-44}
g) and
pulsar observation (In 1940 de Brogue 0.8x10^{-39 g })

Notes:
Please check the web site: http://geocities.com/tongz1/chapter1.htm
“**The
discovery of dark matter and its scientific significance”** and
Switzerland
astronomer Ziviky

**The “dark matter WG ether”
and the medium of light propagation****
**

The existence of dark matter in universal space
confirms a simple fact that there is the medium of light propagation in the
universe. The reasons is appearance, because the dark matter posseseses some
basic properties that a midium posseses, for example:

The composed matter in WG (is certainly much smaller than elementary
particles )and posseses an attractive force i.e. the gravitational force, it is
a kind of long range force, which can be superpositioned.

Two composed matters can not be conbined to form a new bigger particle by
the gravitational force between them (that
already has been proved by physics because the gravitation is too weak to be a
strong force). So the composed pratical object of dark matter
belongs to the item of
elestic matter.

Moreover the WG ether possess some
very important characters as follows:

1. The average speed of composed particles (WG) of dark matter possesses
tantamount speed order of light ray.

2. The density of dark matter is a infinitesimal one (10^{-28}g/cm^{3}
) so that the actions to moving objects with normal speed should be ignored.
While its density of number is prodigious (about 10^{12} times/s
impinging on a region with diameter 1 A)

3. There is great ether pressure in space of university that results from the global effect
of cosmic gravitational dark matter WG
(sometimes we call it light matter
yet).

4. The
original gravitational particle WG possesses great ability interpenetrating
another matter because it is infinitesimal
gravitational particle with light speed.

May be
somebody will question me that since the dark matter is the medium of light
propagation, why astrophysicists can not find it by optical principle and its
instruments?

The answer is that today’s scientists can calculate the mass and energy of
luminous objects by testing the colour temperature of emitted light and the
temperature of any object. This only includes the mass and energy of luminance
matter and the kinetic energy of relevant matter (especially for gas matter or
fluid matter), ie. If it’s true that the light propagates and transmits by the
medium of dark matter, the measured results about the total universal mass by
photometrical method only includes the luminance objects and the kinetic energy
of matter in universal space, excluding the mass of the medium itself.

**
**

**1. The light matter with its composed particles WG fills all the
universal space and permeates into micro-world
**

** Evidence
1. Microwave radiation:
**Using the Hubble telescope, astrophysicists have
observed that there is microwave radiation with intensity of 2.7k in the depth
of the universe. It is an irrefutable fact that there is light matter in the
whole of the universe.

**Evidence
2. Exchanging photons between the elementary particles:
**Furthermore, the elementary particle physics have
shown that emission or absorption of photon quanta always accompanies the
interaction between particles. Surely it is irrefutable evidence that light
matter exists in the space between micro particles.

** 2. The light matter WG possesses the character of
the universal gravitational force**.

The
verification about the existence of “dark matter”, and the fact that the
light deflects in the gravitational field has already proved this central point.

**
**

**3. All of the elementary particles consist of
light matter WG.
**

**Evidence
1. The annihilation of elementary particles**

As is well known in elementary particle physics,
when an electron interacts with a positron, both particles will annihilate into
light energy

e ^{-} +
e ^{+} ®
g

Some
annihilation can happen to a proton and an antiproton. In fact all of the
elementary particles have their corresponding antiparticles, and so
particle-antiparticle can annihilate into light energy.

** Evidence
2.** The
absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all
interactions between elementary particles.

It
is worthwhile to emphasize the fact that the absorption and / or emission of
light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles.
This fact is a satisfactory and necessary condition for central point 3 to be
valid. This is the most fundamental fact, and is similar to the fact that all
substances consist of molecules, and all molecules consist of atoms. They are a
complete analogy.

In
fact there is much experimental data that can verify the above three central
points sufficiently to accept as proven. I will just quote two examples to
demonstrate this.

** Evidence
3**. All kind
of matter commonly possesses a gravitational force.

Physics
has verified that all matter, micro or macro, for example, the galaxy, earth; a
piece of wood, a molecule, an atom and even an elementary particle, all commonly
possess a gravitational force.

**Evidence
4**. Physics has already verified that the total energy of matter is
.

Furthermore,
this energy formula of matter adapts all kind of objects such as atoms,
molecules, the earth, the galaxy and so on are all composed of light matter.

For
matter with a mass of M, its greatest
energy is when it is converted into light matter. According to the wave
theory and optical theory, the kinetic energy of light waves equals the
potential energy of it. Moreover, the classical calculation of the
electrimeganitic wave theory has shown that,

Kinetic energy =

This
means that the total energy must be:

**4. This light matter, i.e. the dark matter in
the universe constructs “velocity ether”
**

Thinking the dark matter as a medium for light
propagation we can get a classical math form of a standing wave, i.e. the light
ray is a simple phenomenon of interference between a medium wave and pulsing
particles.

Assuming a light source is stimulated to emit a
pulse of light matter WG, which enters the surrounding WG ether to induce a
ether wave. The frequency of the wave is related and corresponds to the energy
and speed of the WG particle pulse. Furthermore, the wave inevitably reacts on
the light source and constrains the stimulation by its frequency. Consequently
the pulse will vary with a change in the frequency. In the wave theory there is
a sufficient mature mathematical approach to deal with this problem. This is a
typical standing wave problem, i.e. the superposition between both the WG pulse
from the light source and the WG ether wave will produce interference to form a
standing wave. These motion properties determine the particular phenomena that
the energy of the optical wave is discrete; it possesses the properties of the
wave. At the same time it also possesses some particle properties, For instance,
the property of impulse, light pressure etc.

We
can make a experiment to imitative the phenomenon of light propagation, and when
we pulse gas molecules into atmosphere with ultrasound frequency we can get some
observations related to all the features of particle-wave duality the light ray
possessed.

**The photon quanta and the WG light matter **

There
exists a state of original particle of light matter but it is not the photon
quantum hn.

According
to the description of WG theory the photon quantum is a phenomenon of
wave-particle interference in the space filled with light matter WG. It is a
kind of standing wave in mathematical form. The nature of photon quantum hn
(n can get the value from 0 to infinite) has
been described as the character of the standing wave, it means that no actual
particle state of photon exist in the space of light propagation and it is a
certain quantity of WG that the object system emits or absorbs when it is
stimulated. The character of WG determines the value of h and the relations of
“Schrödinger” equation of the object system determine the value of n. Further more we know the theory of matter
wave has been verified, and is revealed in the math form of hn can characterize all matter or objects. So
the wave-particle duality proves that the light propagation depends on some
medium not as the relativists exert that light propagates in a vacuum without
any medium or carrier and it is pure energy.

**A
powerful supporting experiment to “WG” theory ¾
the “photoelectric effect”**

The experiment on “photo-electric
effect” is introduced in some senior school textbooks. When an electron gets
the irradiation of a light beam it will escape from the cathode. There is a
threshold of the frequency to the light beam, namely the infrared limit. When
the frequency of the light beam is larger than the infrared limit, the escaping
electrons can be detected, no matter how small the irradiation quantity is. On
the other hand, no electron can be detected if the frequency is less than the
threshold, no matter how large the quantity of the irradiation is (or named flux
of the light). It is commonly accepted that the frequency of light determines
the energy a light ray possesses but not its amplitude.

In the following I would like adopt the principle of “WG theory” to
discuss the “photo-electron effect”. An electron oscillating in the cathode
tends to escape from the cathode and is attracted by this cathode at the same
time. During the period of oscillation, if the motion of the electron is
subjected to an action of the light pulse, when the frequency of the light pulse
is large enough during the period of oscillation the electron can absorb enough
WG to increase the energy to escape the cathode. Therefore, the escaping time is
neither “comparably longer to accumulate as is requested by the wave theory,
nor “needs almost no time” statistically as is described in the elastic
collision theory. There is a fixed, but very short time interval for the
electron to escape from the cathode. It is not incidental, that the experimental
data is perfectly in agreement with the theoretical mechanism. As for the
duality of the light and other experiments, under the concept of “WG” theory
they are very easy to explain and understand this being so I am not going to
dwell on them. In the following chapter I would like to discuss the relationship
between the WG theory and essential mechanism of strong interaction.

**
**

**The “Lorendz transformation” and its two premises in WG theory**

Therefore
in two inertial coordinates k and k’, the coordinate transformation to
describe the same event must satisfy the following conditions:

(1)
The inertial coordinates k and k’ drag the “WG ether” in their individual
coordinates completely or strongly. Refer to chapter 4 and the relevant contents
about the “Effective dragging (to WG ether)
indirectly”

(2)
The sensor and sending of an event between the coordinates k and k’ must be by
light ray and light sensor.

Using the above the two
conditions we can prove that the rules of motion of the “WG” in optical
state is a Lorentz invariant, ie. They are invariant under Lorentz group SO
(3,l) operation. Refer to
the web site : http://www20.brinkster.com/tzr9

**The macro pressure effect of light matter – strong interaction and the “droplet effect” under the pressure of
cosmic dark matter.**

I have shown that the “WG” itself is elementary gravitational
particle. If the light matter “WG ether” composes 95 % of the total cosmic
mass, and since the gravitational force is a long range one it is of the
property of superposition, that the neighboring “WG” particle cannot be
combined into a larger particle by universal gravity. Yet, the cloud of droplets
of the light matter can be produced due to the total pressure effect of cosmic
dark matter or the “WG ether” (just like a liquid droplet in the saturate
that is produced by surrounding vapour). In the following we will discuss the
mechanism of strong interaction.

The mathematical method is to take a differential volume
at the center of the universe. It is a vacuum with respect to “WG”. The
calculation of the pressure acted by “WG ether” on the volume is a
generalized integral, the upper limit of which must extend to infinity (its
radius of the universe actually). The integral constant is determined by the
boundary condition. Combining the above method with a reasonable approximation
we can simplify the calculation to get the correct result.

Following are the details about Strong Interaction and The Macro Effect
of the “WG ether”.

`
In the previous section I approached how the elementary particle
consisted of WG. The essence is to study the mechanism of strong interaction and
of the basic body of particles (in short B body in the following text), which is
stable when existing in the microscopic world. The preliminary research shows
that strong interaction results from the global effect of cosmic light matter.

Assuming a region with radius r set in the vacuum state of “WG
ether”. We can calculate the pressure of the external “WG ether”. Let the
“WG” at r apart from the center of sphere exert a force F,

F = F_{1} + F_{2}
(7.1)

Where

(7.2)

(7.3)

Where
A_{w} is the cross section of WG; F_{2} is the gravity of
interior mass M_{1} exert on the WG at the surface of sphere and F_{1}
the ether pressure of WG. In the following we use notation T’ as the average
kinetic energy corresponding to the temperature T; use notation R as universal
constant; notation N is Avergadro’s constant; notation D_{0} is
average mass density in the sphere with radius r; notation r_{s} is the
radius of the relativistic universe; notation r_{B} is the radius of the
“ B body”.

Assuming the state equation of gas and Pascal pressure principle are
approximately valid, considering

(7.4)

Let

(7.5)

Deriving
equation (7.1) reduce to

(7.6)

Where

(7.7)

From the boundary condition

(7.8)

(7.9)

We
get

(7.10)

Where

(7.11)

If
we take r_{B} = 1.4 x 10^{24} m (LKM unit), the mass of the
universe M_{u} = 10^{52} kg, R_{W}= 1.38x 10^{-23 }J/K.
Further more by mathematical consideration

(7.12)

The
solution is

(7.13)

It satisfies the requirement of the strength of the strong interaction.

From the result of these
calculations, the basis for confirming is reasonable. According
to the similar treatment of the pressure of the earth’s atmosphere in the
classical physical theory, the gravitational mass could be viewed as
concentrated at gravitational center. The resulting formula is consistent with
this practice. The strength is Mu order greater than the gravitational force
between particles. If Mu takes as much as the total mass of the universe, it
will be the same order of measuring the value in strong interaction experiments.

**The
conditions in which the “Basic body of particles” are stable.**

Though I have found the origin of strong interaction, but a more
important question is what is the condition for forming the “B body”? It is
obvious that the “B body” can be formed only in space where the density and
the pressure of “WG ether” are very high.

Another
problem is that if such a high pressure of “WG ether” exists in the macro
cosmos and if there is no other interaction, when a black hole is formed, the
volumes will inevitable increase infinitely due to the “WG” pressure and the
black hole effect will continue absorbing “WG”.

Therefore,
I have to study further the following cases.

Assuming
some light matter “WG” gets condensed in some region (B body) under the
action of the cosmic pressure of dark matter. The oscillation could be the Basic
moving state to these WG and its oscillating amplitude is approximately scaled
to that of the “B body”. Furthermore, even though the cosmic pressure is
very high, the “B body” can still emit some oscillation wave energy. The
intensity of the emission is proportional to the square of amplitude, that is
the square of the scale of “B body”. Such an emission results in energy
decreasing and volume contracting.

Another
case to consider is about the emission of cosmic light matter. From the spectral
strength distribution figure in spectral physics we can see that strength
contribution of various frequencies is non-linear. If the wavelength l,
which corresponds to the upper part of a cosmic emission frequency, is less than
the scale of the “B body”, it will permeate into the “B body”, and will
be absorbed partly by the “B body”. The physical consequence of this is the
weakening the pressure on the “B body”. On the other hand, the absorbed
“WG” will increase the oscillation energy and expand the volume of the “B
body”. In the mean time the radiation emitted from the “B body” will
increase. Only the cosmic radiation that’s wavelength is longer than the scale
of the “B body” will reflect from the surface of the B body and induce a
pressure effect on it.

Under the above-mentioned situations we can discuss the following
regulated mechanism. When a “B body” absorbs some mass and energy from
cosmic radiation, of a quantity that equals that of the emissions from it. The
“B body is set in an dynamically equilibrium state. This is to say that the
“B body” is provided with the condition to exist in a stable state. We can
see that this dynamically equilibrium state reveals an objective “granule”
of the “B body”.

Also this dynamically equilibrium state reveals a very important fact
that the scale and the mass of the stable “B body” are unique. This
conclusion can also be deduced by a quantitatively calculation.

**
**

**“Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”
**

It must be said,
that the above argument shows that some initial frames possess a very important
character I have called the “Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”.

The dynamically equilibrium state of B body implies that the WG ether in
its frame possesses the same moving component with its frame. Because all stable
matters in a frame must keep the dynamically equilibrium state with the external
space of it, i.e. there is the moving WG ether with the same component as the
frame has, because all other matter in this frame (especially for object with massive mass) emits the WG every time and everywhere. We call this situation “Effective
dragging WG ether indirectly”. This is why
we cannot find any interference patterns by Michelson interferometer.

Under
strong interaction, the WG tends to condense to form the B body. The volume of
the B body increases, as well as the average kinetic energy of the internal WG
to counteract correspondingly the strong interaction. In addition there are a
variety of WG radiations with different frequencies in the universe. This WG
radiation will penetrate into B body, only if its wavelength is comparable with,
or less than the average interval between WGs in the B body, i.e. λ < d _{W}
(Assuming absorption intensity is I_{0}). Conversely those radiation
whose λ > d _{W} will be reflected from the surface of B body,
and produce a strong interaction. Because the damping of strong interaction is
non-linear, there must exist a λ_{0}, with which the B body remains
in an Equilibrium State. This is to say that the radius of the B body is unique,
and satisfies the following equation.

I_{0} = I = ANd_{W}^{2}
(9.1)

Where
I is the intensity of the radiation of B body; N is the number of WG in B body
and d_{W} is the average amplitude of oscillation of the WG in B body; A
is a constant.

Outside the B body, there is a central force field, the external WG
satisfies the spherical symmetry of Schrodinger equation

(9.2)

**
**

**The
math- physical model of the stable B body and its unique granules character**

From the qualitative analysis in the previous section I
have found, that the “B body” is in a dynamically equilibrium state of
absorbing and emitting the “WG” light matter. Its existence and its granular
mass and scale are unique. This conclusion is very important to recent physics.
However, it is not enough to study it only qualitatively. According to the
mathematical and physical tools and the knowledge I possess, I have been able to
study the existence of the “Basic body of particles” more precisely and
quantitatively. Because there is a central force field surrounding the “B
body”, the strong cosmic pressure is directed to the center of the “B
body”. This is equivalent to the gravitational force produced from the center
of the “B body” (at least in mathematics). Therefore, it must satisfy
Schrodiger’s equation of quantum mechanics.

It is a classical mathematical problem, much the same as the hydrogen
atom problem in mathematical formulae. What needs to be changed is only
replacing the interacting term by strong interaction. According to the theory of
two-order partial differential equation, if the form and the boundary condition
are the same, the solution must be the same. I have obtained the first radius of
the “WG”

(9.3)

Where
G, m_{w}, Mμ, h is constant so r_{1} must also be constant.

Even a reader without the special knowledge and skill on partial
differential equation can safely believe the correctness of this solution,
because it is one of the most important proven achievements in recent physical
mathematics. The physical significance of it is great, as it reveals the
mechanism of the quantization of electron charge. This is a significant problem
faced by physicists and it needs urgently to be resolved. I will discuss it in a
special topic after examining the essential mechanism of the electric
interaction.

Now let me discuss the above solution (9.3)

(9.3)

r_{1} is the first orbit radius of WG. It is a constant.
Obviously it is a basis for discussing the quantization of electric charge, i.e.
the charge quantity is integer of e. In my solution of equation (9.2), the gaps
of energy levels are very small, with the orbits crowding together. When WG
fills out the orbits, the following effects take place:

1. The probability motion of WG will penetrate the B
body in term wave energy, and weaken the force field nonlinearly.

2. The gravitational interaction between WG will
produce the energy level crossing, which will result in thinning the region of
WG cloud in an optical state, but the number of WG orbits will become larger.
The main quantum number n being large; outside the WG cloud the force field will
convert into a static electric field due to it decreasing sharply.

The above-mentioned characteristics determine that there are only three
stable states for the B body:

The
first being the fulfilled orbit state; the second a space like obit state of WG;
and the third a degenerated state (double B body communal WG cloud). It agrees
with the fact that there already exist stable proton, electron and neutron.

The
above research can be reasonability understood through some relevant physical
phenomena and proven theories such as the formation of atomization drops in
saturated air. The difference is that the math-physical model in my paper has
only one basic body with three stable states corresponding with the proton,
electron and the neutron.

**
**

**The
energy-mass model of the stable particles and its solutions for stable states. **

**The
collapsing phenomenon in the degeneration of energy levels**

If I had not taken the Degeneration State into account, the solution of
the Schrodinger’s equation is an analogy to the hydrogen atom problem.
However, it is essentially different from the hydrogen atom construction theory
because of the following conditions.

The
energy level crossing of hydrogen is due to the existence of a static electric
repulsive force between the orbital electrons. On the other hand, the
interaction between the electron and proton at the center of mass is a static
electric attractive force. The repulsive force of the orbital electrons may be
broad to the interval of energy levels, and decreases the number of orbits in
the hydrogen model.

In the constructive model of “B body”, the energy level can still
degenerate, but the interaction between the “WG” is the universal
gravitational force. Such a force can reduce and narrow the interval of the
energy levels, and increase the number of orbits until it collapses. The
collapse mechanism decreases the number of stable states down to only two
fundamental stable states.

1. The fulfilled orbit state, which corresponds to the
“B body”, stays in a slightly oscillating state.

2. The space-like orbiting state corresponding to violated oscillation of
the “B body” leads the surrounding “WG cloud” to be thrown off. It is
like a sticky lollipop. When it is held steady, the sesame seeds can be held on
it. But when we swing it hard, most of them will fly off the lollipop.

The situations mentioned in (I) and (2) correspond exactly to the
elementary particles, namely the proton and electron respectively.

Certainly, I must consider the coupled state. (In the theory of atom
construction there is a similarly coupled orbiting state). The theory that I
wish to put is that the proton as well as electron has an identical core. Each
of them has a tendency to arrest the “WG cloud” to be placed in a stable
state themselves. When the proton and electron are very closed together, they
will share the “WG cloud” to form a coupling. This is nothing but the
Mass-energy State of the neutron. So why does the neutron exhibit the
neutralized character? I will discuss this in the chapters on the essence of
electric field. Which will show that this is the best evidence for verifying the
coupling principle.

The
reasonability of my results above can be verified by much definite theory and
physical phenomena, as it can be compared with the normal phenomena of
atomization drops in saturated air. Some differences are that the math-physical
model in this paper has only one basic body with three stable states
corresponding with the proton, electron and the neutron.

The
“WG” theory has suggested a model of mass-energy composition for stable
elementary particles, grouping other temporal elementary particles under the
heading of my research on a non-steady state of the “Basic body of
particles”. Particle physics has achieved some success in this field. Many new
short lifetime particles were produced by a variety of accelerators by means of
collision experiments.

**The
principle for calculating the “WG” mass; and the numerical relation of WG
mass and the universe mass**

We believe, when two B bodies get close each other to a critical scale, a
repulsive elastic force will be produced. If the mass in the elastic radius is
defined as the mass of the B body and let n_{p} (n_{e}) be
quantum number of full filled (space like) orbit B body, we have

r _{p} = r_{Bp}
= r_{1} n_{p}^{2} ;
r_{Be} = r_{1} n_{e}^{2}
(9.1-1)

Where
r_{Bp} and r_{Be} is the radius of core of proton and electron
respectively; r_{p} is acting radius of charge of proton. From equation
(8.2), when the main quantum number large enough, the number of orbital WG of B
body can be calculated by the following formula:

(9.1-2)

Because of sharp decrease of the force field, a reasonable approximation
is 2n^{3} /3. Therefore we get

(9.1-3)

Where M _{p} and M_{e} is the mass of proton and electron
respectively. Considering

(9.1-4)

And

(9.1-5)

We get

(9.1-6)

M_{u} =10^{53}kg
(9.1-7)

Finally

m_{W} = 3.636 x 10^{-45} kg
(9.1-8)

From the argument about the “Basic body of particles” above
mentioned, this “B body” can be summarize as following.

The
scale of mass of the stable “B body” in the universe is unique.

There
is “WG cloud” surrounding the “B body”, which is governed by the quantum
mechanical relation. But, the degeneration of orbit induced by the gravitational
force of orbital “WG” gives use to collapse of the “WG cloud”. I.e. the
interval of level decrease and the number of orbit increase. A lot of orbit are
constrained a very thin layer outside of” B body” with a large main quantum
number.

In
equation (9.1-2) the “B body” with surrounding “WG cloud” assure that
there exist three Stable states in the universe.

The
fulfilled orbital state

The
space like state (the “B body “as a Core oscillates violently, and the
surrounding “WG cloud” disappears).

The
coupled state, i.e. Two “B body” shares a common “WG orbital cloud”.

The
three stable states correspond to the three stable elementary particles, namely
proton, electron and neutron; they are most stables one.

The four properties of the “B body” provide a method to estimate the
mass of the “WG” original particle. It is an approximate method for the
order evaluation. In the following we are going to introduce the principle of
the calculation.

As is well known, the mass of proton, electron has been measured
correctly in physics. They correspond to the fulfilled orbit and space- like
Orbit State of the “B body”. It follows that the difference of mass between
a proton and an electron is determined by the mass of the orbital “WG cloud”
in a proton because they have same internal core of the “B body”. So I can
estimate the number of “WG” original particle by the following method.

The “WG cloud” outside the “B body” gives raise to the
degeneration and even the collapse of the energy level by gravitational
interaction. Therefore the relation of the “WG” orbital radius r and the
main quantum number are equivalent to the relation in the atom model. The Pauli
exclusive principle is obviously suitable, because all of the characters of the
“WG” is obtained under the assumption that the Pauli exclusive principle is
suitable. Therefore the quantum mechanics provides the method for calculating
the relation between the number and main quantum number of the “WG” in the
“WG cloud” directly. (In calculation we keep only the first order and
ignored the term that is comparable with the lost part induced by the slight
oscillation of “B body”)

In addition the number density of protons is comparable with that of
electron. Although electron is a state of space-like orbit, there is still a
very thin layer of “WG cloud”. In the calculation of the integrating value
includes the region between the shell and the first orbit. Therefore we can use
the mass ratio of proton and electron to replace the cubic ratio of their radius
without any error.

According to the above-mentioned principle after
appropriate mathematical treatment we can obtain the mass of “WG”:

m_{w} =3.63 6 × 10^{-45}
kg.

**The experimental test and the verification of the
theoretical mass of
“WG” ― observation on the double star and pulsar **

When we review the experimental data recorded in file, there are at least
two of them that have verified the theoretical value of the “WG” mass. The
first was an observation in 1960 by De Brogue on the Binary star another was in
1969 by Feinberg on the pulsar. They have found that the rest mass of a photon
is about 0.8 ´
10^{-39} kg and 10^{-44} kg. The average value of them is about
10^{-42} kg. It is completely consist with my theoretical value.

Please check the web site http://www20.brinkster.com/tzr9
I’ve given the details about verifying and calculation of two observations
above mentioned.

Since the WG original particle possesses mass m_{W}= 3.6 x 10^{-45}
kg, we can use the Lagrangian of generalized Maxwell electromagnetic field to
describe this mass.

(10-1)

It
is worth mentioning that the term
in
(10-1) violates U (1) gauge invariant. There exists an essential difference
between Lagrangian (10-1) and that in the Maxwellian theory. Making use of the
Euler- Lagrange equation

(10-2)

We get the basic equation for the WG original particle

;
(10-3)

Using
the definition of field intensity

F_{μν = }∂_{μ }A_{ν} -
∂_{ν}A_{μ}

A_{μ}=(ψ,A)
(10-.4)

Under the Lorentz gauge, the equation of motion for WG original particle
can be expressed in terms of electromagnetic potential A_{μ.}

(□ – μ^{2}) A =
0

(□ – μ^{2}) ψ
= 0
(10-.5)

For
static WG, equation reduces to

(10-.6)

Therefore the Green function of WG equation, i.e. the responsive function
of a point source G (r-r’) satisfies the following equation

(10-7)

G
=
(10-8)

If the origin of the coordinate is put on the source point, the static
potential can be rewritten

(10-9)

Where g is a quantity, characterizing the strength of field intensity.
The static field intensity is

(10-10)

Where
(μ r) is a dimensionless quantity, and δ<1. Assuming WG original
particle cannot drag the “WG ether” too strongly, this means g=0. In the
following I will mainly put forward the gravitational effect of “WG”.

**
**

Further
research on subjects about “the math-physical model for the universe
consisting of dark matter WG” and “The WG star-A mathematical study
about WG composing the entire universe” and “The analytical study for the mass of WG star” please check the web site:
http://geocities.com/tongz1

** Major
experimental laws in the physical theory on light, electricity, and magnetism.
**

The theory of electromagnetism has been
based on Coulomb’s, Biot, Savart and Ampere’s laws. Even Maxwellian theory
is based on the unified form of these laws. The breakthrough in quantum
mechanics that characterises the energy term and quantisation character is only
developing as a method to describe electromagnetic properties. As to the
question of why and how electric charge interacts and what the essential
mechanism of interaction is. These experimental laws cannot be answered.

**
**

**Two
different states of B bodies and their effect of interference – the mechanism
of electrical interaction**

As a model of stable “Basic body of particles” has been established,
the essence of the electric and magnetic interaction has become a simple and
obvious dynamic problem.

I have learned from previous research that the state of “Basic body of
particles” is a stable system state in the dynamic equilibrium with the
cosmic, through absorbing and emitting WG” light matter. The frequency of the
radiation of “B body” can be decomposed into two basic components: One is ν_{B}, corresponding to the
oscillation of “B body” as a
center of mass. The other is ν_{w} corresponding to the frequency
of the radiation of “WG cloud”
outside of the “B body”. Obviously, the frequency of the center of mass is
lower than that of the orbital “WG”, ν_{w}
>> ν_{B}. According to the different stable states both
the proton and electron, the former emits mainly ν_{w},
named “body with higher frequency”; the electron emits ν_{B},
named “body with lower frequency”.

It is well known in the phenomenon of resonance that two bodies having
the same or nearly the same frequency will resonance. In other words, another
body can absorb the oscillation of one body. Conversely, if the frequency of
them were very different from each other, the oscillation would weaken. This is
a resonate principle.

Let me now discuss a proton set in the space of a neighbouring proton (or
an electron set in the neighbouring space of another electron.)

For any individual proton, the dynamic equilibrium is disturbed. The
frequencies of “WG standing wave”, emitted from both neighboring surface are
same. The resonance or convection between two protons will happen. Furthermore
the resonance is aggravated with the distance decreasing. The dynamic
consequence is to repulse each other. It is not too difficult to use a
mathematical approach to derive at this point, because the “repulsive force is
proportionate to the inverse square of distance”. This is the Coulumb’s
repulsive force. The condition for supporting this explanation is that the
interaction between “WG original particle” and the standing wave is a
long-range wave interaction, and the propagating speed is light speed.

Thinking
another situation, when bodies with different frequencies and are close each
other (proton in neighbouring space of electron). A difference situation can be
shows that the radiation from the opposite surfaces will be suppressed because
their intrinsic frequency of “WG” radiation is distinctly different. For
each body, the equilibrium with external space has been broken, and the dynamic
effect is to attract each other.

**12.3
The intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of electric charge.”**

At this point, I have shown clearly that both of the proton-like bodies
with a higher frequency and electron-like body with a lower frequency are at a
state of dynamical equilibrium with the universe, possessing the same “B
body” at the center of mass. Obviously, the fluxes of the “WG” emitted
from the basic cores of proton or electron body individually are the same. This
is the intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of an “electric charge”. Also
it is the essential reason why it is not possible to find stable fractional
charge. Controversially, the “quantisation of electric charge” is powerful
evidence to verify this essential mechanism of electric interaction.

**The theoretical derivation of electric
experimental law **

**The electric quantity and
“WG” flux **

In this chapter, I have argued that the cardinal stable and charged
“Basic body of particles” are in fact the well know proton and election,
whose cores are identical in mass and radius. They are equilibrium with the
whole external system through absorbing and emitting “WG” dynamically.
Therefore the cardinal stable electric quantity is identical, ie. The charge is
“quantised”. There is no fractional charge in nature. In physical
terminology, a stable charged particle, the flux of its “WG” radiation,
penetrates through a closed spherical surface and is constant, ie. The electric
quantity can be expressed by the total flux of “WG” radiation. Furthermore,
the electric interaction can be expressed by exchanging “WG” between
neighbouring charged particles. (For instance the number of
“WG” per unit time.)

In general, physics always mathematizes some physical properties.
Mathematics has provided a sophisticated method to calculate the flux that
penetrates through a close spherical surface. Making use of a curve surface
integral, we can derive “Gaussian law”. Furthermore, according to the law
that states that intensity of the wave interaction is proportional to the
inverse square of distance between two charges, and proportional to the quantity
of electric charge, we can derive Coulomb’s law. The research for the essence
of electric interaction leads to a possibility that the famous three
experimental laws can be derived from “WG” theory. The method is mature,
simple and unquestionably a classical one. (C/f chapter 7 “ the macro effect
of the light matter”).

**
**

**The vortex field of dark matter and magnetic field
**

The “WG absorbing (or emitting) field” and
the “vortex composed field in light matter ether.”

In the following I am going to discuss magnetic interaction, according to
the result of the study on the essence of electric field in the light of
“WG” theory. Certainly, I am not concerned about the study of the properties
of these functions, but the understanding of the reason by which magnetic
interaction is produced and its mechanism. I would like to get an answer to the
following question:

What is magnetic field? Why magnets will attract or repulse each other?
Is magnetic field a special substance or some state of the motion of substance?

Formally,
varying electric field or moving electrons can induce a magnetic field. First I
will discuss the relation between the motion of electrons and a magnetic field.
As is mentioned in the previous section, the electron itself is set in a space
like Orbital State. It tends to absorb “WG” to a state of fulfilled orbit.
While I also consider “the Ampere’s loop current”, the electron in general
is, set in probability motion (the probability motion on an atom orbit). It can
induce a hole-like vortex field of “WG” through its interaction with “WG
ether”.

When I used the dynamic knowledge to examine the interaction between vortices
and/or with electric charge, I found that the interaction was completely
consistent with the right/left hand rule in the theory of electromagnetism.

When using some experimental method to change the state of “proton”
into an electron-like state with high frequency, the proton is in a fully filled
state, it can induce both a releasing field and vortex field of “WG” forming
a complex field, when submitted to oscillation and rotation. The property of the
complex field is opposite to the hole-like vortex field of electrons. I define
the composed Motion State of “WG” vortex field as magnetic field. In the
established math-physical theory, we can easily find a suitable method to deal
with the problem mentioned above.

**The
mathematical method for deriving electric and magnetic experimental laws
theoretically.**

Assuming an electron is set in “Ampere’s electric current” state,
and the unit voracity is b_{0}. I can calculate the contribution of the
voracity, induced by “Ampere’s current”, to the intensity of the field at
point P, i.e. the intensity of the hole-like “WG” vortex, denoted by B. We
have

Let the constant K· b_{0} = b (w b), B_{W} is nothing
but the magnetic field strength. It can be measured in the experiment as B (T).

The curve integral of a plane enclosed by a curve is defined as
.
If it does not vanish for some curves

The resultant component of the interaction of “WG” hole like vortex
field, which is parallel to the plane, is not zero. Therefore there is a WG flux
(or call it charge flux) in a direction normal to the plane S. this indeed is
current effect.

Where,
the constant µ_{0} is a magnetic susceptibility.

It is distinct from the previous treatment in the electromagnetic theory,
which also uses the mathematical method to deal with the “vortex motion”,
but it is non-mechanism, i.e. the realm of experimental law. At present I know
that using the mathematical method of voracity, the magnetic field can be
treated correctly. The essential reason is that magnetic field is indeed the
substantial particle and vortex of ether. Its dynamic character of motion is the
same as a vortex in fluid.

**
**

**“WG”
theory and the principle of introducing complex expression for wave function**

In this paper, I have only preliminarily constructed the system and frame
to deal with stable “Basic body of particles” problem. After I intend to
study the non-stable “Basic body of particles”, which will cover a larger
region of particle physics. Because the static method of “WG” theory is
indissoluble with quantum mechanics, it can be included in this region with out
a problem. The reason for this is that “WG” theory provides mathematical
proof to solve this problem while Schrodingers equation requires a complex
expression for wave function to match the calculation and experiments, and
provides for it a rigorous mathematical derivation. Here I would like to
introduce briefly the principle of the relative number property.

We usually define on a numerical axis an arrow as
positive to specify the positive and negative as shown in Fig. 15-1(1).
Mathematics in general requests a complete and sufficient form of solution. If I
define the opposite direction of x-axis as positive, this is equivalent to the
former Fig 15-1(1). To distinct the latter from I add i on to the latter as in
fig. (l5-1(2)). Furthermore I can add i to any number in system 2 to distinct it
from a number in system 1.

Definition: the transformation from system 1 to system 2 is named as (-i)
transformation, and a factor –i is multiply on all numbers of system 1.
Similarly, the (ý) transformation is a transformation from system 2 into system
l and factor i is multiply to all numbers of system 2. The meaning of i^{2}
= -1 is transform i in system 2 to system 1, i.e. i transformation, so i (i)= -1

Fig. 15-1

It is not too difficult to verify that in the complex number realm, the
mathematical rule satisfies the mathematical rule of the relative number
property principle. The unique worth of this is that it is a correct and
convenient method to deal with some problems, which required a mathematical
whole solution (complete solution), and the problems that require two or more
independent coordinates to deal with the composed system etc.

Considering a space filled with “WG ether”, to calculate the density
of light in the WG ether space, there are two parts that must be taken into
account:

The
contributions from “WG” pulse particle currents in standing wave form

The
contributions from the “WG” ether wave in standing wave form

Certainly, the complex number (or relative number property) expression is
complete.

There is no need for reticence, in that my approach also has concern with
the sensitive problems. That if the “indeterminate principle” should be
restricted in application and derivation, and the problem related to the
essential reason of the appearance of the infinity in particle physics
researching using relativistic quantum mechanics. I hope to publish as early as
possible the continuation of this paper.

** **

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**
**