WG THEORY

ABSTRACT

In this synopsis A theory called the WG theory proves with evidence that...

·          Light propagates in the medium called Dark matter. It’s math form is a kind of standing wave i.e. the light ray is a simple phenomenon of interference between a medium wave and pulsing particles.

·         Strong interaction result from the macro pressure effect of Dark matter.

·         Dark matter as well as all elementary particles is composed of a type of original gravitational particle.

  The WG theory also answers some important problems associated with modern physics such as...

·         Mass-energy.

·         A model of stable particles.

·         The mechanism of electromagnetic interaction.

·         The essence of light propagation.

·        The intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of electric charge.

Professor Tong zheng rong was as a physical research professor and the Director of the Basic Physics Research Department of the D.R.I. in his homeland China. His book <Dark Matter ·Strong Interaction ·Micro Black hole> a Chinese edition was published by < Shanghai Science and Technology Literature Public Society> in March 1996 “SBN-7-5439-0823-9/0.106 1996.3”. In November 1996 he presented some of his findings to the National Physical Conference of General Relativity and Astrology Gravity Associations in China.

 

According to the great discovery of the “dark matter” by Switzerland astronomer Ziviky and qualitative and quantitative verifying in this paper, a very important fact has been confirmed that there is a gravitational matter filling all the universal space and permeating into micro-world which actually is composed of the original gravitational particle with mass grade of 3.64x10-42 g, we call it the WG briefly.

 

More evidence proving WG theory to be true has been fund in further research. The mass of WG (mW = 3.636 x 10-42 g) worked out based on the principle that all particles are the “droplet ” under the great pressure effect source from  the gravitational dark matter in all universe space is same grade order with the value from observation on the double star ( In 1969 Feinbertg  10-44 g) and pulsar observation (In 1940 de Brogue 0.8x10-39 g )

 

Notes: Please check the web site: http://geocities.com/tongz1/chapter1.htm  The discovery of dark matter and its scientific significance” and Switzerland astronomer Ziviky

           

The “dark matter WG ether” and the medium of light propagation

The existence of dark matter in universal space confirms a simple fact that there is the medium of light propagation in the universe. The reasons is appearance, because the dark matter posseseses some basic properties that a midium posseses, for example:

The composed matter in WG (is certainly much smaller than elementary particles )and posseses an attractive force i.e. the gravitational force, it is a kind of long range force, which can be superpositioned.

Two composed matters can not be conbined to form a new bigger particle by the gravitational force between them (that already has been proved by physics because the gravitation is too weak to be a strong force). So the composed pratical object of dark matter  belongs to the item of elestic matter.

Moreover the WG ether possess some very important characters as follows:

  1. The average speed of composed particles (WG) of dark matter possesses tantamount speed order of light ray.

  2. The density of dark matter is a infinitesimal one (10-28g/cm3 ) so that the actions to moving objects with normal speed should be ignored. While its density of number is prodigious (about 1012 times/s impinging on a region with diameter 1 A)

  3. There is great ether pressure in space of university that results from the global effect of cosmic gravitational dark matter WG (sometimes we call it light matter yet).

  4. The original gravitational particle WG possesses great ability interpenetrating another matter because it is infinitesimal gravitational particle with light speed.

 

            May be somebody will question me that since the dark matter is the medium of light propagation, why astrophysicists can not find it by optical principle and its instruments?
The answer is that today’s scientists can calculate the mass and energy of luminous objects by testing the colour temperature of emitted light and the temperature of any object. This only includes the mass and energy of luminance matter and the kinetic energy of relevant matter (especially for gas matter or fluid matter), ie. If it’s true that the light propagates and transmits by the medium of dark matter, the measured results about the total universal mass by photometrical method only includes the luminance objects and the kinetic energy of matter in universal space, excluding the mass of the medium itself
.

 

The WG theory and its four central points with evidence

 

    1. The light matter with its composed particles WG fills all the universal space and permeates into micro-world

 Evidence 1.  Microwave radiation:  Using the Hubble telescope, astrophysicists have observed that there is microwave radiation with intensity of 2.7k in the depth of the universe. It is an irrefutable fact that there is light matter in the whole of the universe.

Evidence 2. Exchanging photons between the elementary particles:  Furthermore, the elementary particle physics have shown that emission or absorption of photon quanta always accompanies the interaction between particles. Surely it is irrefutable evidence that light matter exists in the space between micro particles.

 

    2. The light matter WG possesses the character of the universal gravitational force.

The verification about the existence of “dark matter”, and the fact that the light deflects in the gravitational field has already proved this central point.

 

    3. All of the elementary particles consist of light matter WG.

Evidence 1. The annihilation of elementary particles

    As is well known in elementary particle physics, when an electron interacts with a positron, both particles will annihilate into light energy

                  e -        +         e +   ®       g

Some annihilation can happen to a proton and an antiproton. In fact all of the elementary particles have their corresponding antiparticles, and so particle-antiparticle can annihilate into light energy.

 Evidence 2. The absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles.

It is worthwhile to emphasize the fact that the absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles. This fact is a satisfactory and necessary condition for central point 3 to be valid. This is the most fundamental fact, and is similar to the fact that all substances consist of molecules, and all molecules consist of atoms. They are a complete analogy.

In fact there is much experimental data that can verify the above three central points sufficiently to accept as proven. I will just quote two examples to demonstrate this.

 Evidence 3. All kind of matter commonly possesses a gravitational force.

Physics has verified that all matter, micro or macro, for example, the galaxy, earth; a piece of wood, a molecule, an atom and even an elementary particle, all commonly possess a gravitational force.

 Evidence 4. Physics has already verified that the total energy of matter is .

Furthermore, this energy formula of matter adapts all kind of objects such as atoms, molecules, the earth, the galaxy and so on are all composed of light matter.

For  matter with a mass of M, its greatest  energy is when it is converted into light matter. According to the wave theory and optical theory, the kinetic energy of light waves equals the potential energy of it. Moreover, the classical calculation of the electrimeganitic wave theory has shown that,

                    Kinetic energy  =   

This means that the total energy must be:                               

                         

    4. This light matter, i.e. the dark matter in the universe constructs “velocity ether”

 

The standing wave of wave-particle interference and the light nature

    Thinking the dark matter as a medium for light propagation we can get a classical math form of a standing wave, i.e. the light ray is a simple phenomenon of interference between a medium wave and pulsing particles.

    Assuming a light source is stimulated to emit a pulse of light matter WG, which enters the surrounding WG ether to induce a ether wave. The frequency of the wave is related and corresponds to the energy and speed of the WG particle pulse. Furthermore, the wave inevitably reacts on the light source and constrains the stimulation by its frequency. Consequently the pulse will vary with a change in the frequency. In the wave theory there is a sufficient mature mathematical approach to deal with this problem. This is a typical standing wave problem, i.e. the superposition between both the WG pulse from the light source and the WG ether wave will produce interference to form a standing wave. These motion properties determine the particular phenomena that the energy of the optical wave is discrete; it possesses the properties of the wave. At the same time it also possesses some particle properties, For instance, the property of impulse, light pressure etc.

 

We can make a experiment to imitative the phenomenon of light propagation, and when we pulse gas molecules into atmosphere with ultrasound frequency we can get some observations related to all the features of particle-wave duality the light ray possessed.

 

The photon quanta and the WG light matter

    There exists a state of original particle of light matter but it is not the photon quantum hn.

According to the description of WG theory the photon quantum is a phenomenon of wave-particle interference in the space filled with light matter WG. It is a kind of standing wave in mathematical form. The nature of photon quantum hn (n can get the value from 0 to infinite) has been described as the character of the standing wave, it means that no actual particle state of photon exist in the space of light propagation and it is a certain quantity of WG that the object system emits or absorbs when it is stimulated. The character of WG determines the value of h and the relations of “Schrödinger” equation of the object system determine the value of n. Further more we know the theory of matter wave has been verified, and is revealed in the math form of hn can characterize all matter or objects. So the wave-particle duality proves that the light propagation depends on some medium not as the relativists exert that light propagates in a vacuum without any medium or carrier and it is pure energy.

 

A powerful supporting experiment to “WG” theory ¾ the “photoelectric effect”

      The experiment on “photo-electric effect” is introduced in some senior school textbooks. When an electron gets the irradiation of a light beam it will escape from the cathode. There is a threshold of the frequency to the light beam, namely the infrared limit. When the frequency of the light beam is larger than the infrared limit, the escaping electrons can be detected, no matter how small the irradiation quantity is. On the other hand, no electron can be detected if the frequency is less than the threshold, no matter how large the quantity of the irradiation is (or named flux of the light). It is commonly accepted that the frequency of light determines the energy a light ray possesses but not its amplitude.

      In the following I would like adopt the principle of “WG theory” to discuss the “photo-electron effect”. An electron oscillating in the cathode tends to escape from the cathode and is attracted by this cathode at the same time. During the period of oscillation, if the motion of the electron is subjected to an action of the light pulse, when the frequency of the light pulse is large enough during the period of oscillation the electron can absorb enough WG to increase the energy to escape the cathode. Therefore, the escaping time is neither “comparably longer to accumulate as is requested by the wave theory, nor “needs almost no time” statistically as is described in the elastic collision theory. There is a fixed, but very short time interval for the electron to escape from the cathode. It is not incidental, that the experimental data is perfectly in agreement with the theoretical mechanism. As for the duality of the light and other experiments, under the concept of “WG” theory they are very easy to explain and understand this being so I am not going to dwell on them. In the following chapter I would like to discuss the relationship between the WG theory and essential mechanism of strong interaction.

 

The “Lorendz transformation” and its two premises in WG theory

    Therefore in two inertial coordinates k and k’, the coordinate transformation to describe the same event must satisfy the following conditions:

    (1) The inertial coordinates k and k’ drag the “WG ether” in their individual coordinates completely or strongly. Refer to chapter 4 and the relevant contents about the “Effective dragging (to WG ether) indirectly”

   (2) The sensor and sending of an event between the coordinates k and k’ must be by light ray and light sensor.

    Using the above the two conditions we can prove that the rules of motion of the “WG” in optical state is a Lorentz invariant, ie. They are invariant under Lorentz group SO (3,l) operation. Refer to the web site : http://www20.brinkster.com/tzr9

 

The macro pressure effect of light matter – strong interaction and the “droplet effect” under the pressure of cosmic dark matter.

 

      I have shown that the “WG” itself is elementary gravitational particle. If the light matter “WG ether” composes 95 % of the total cosmic mass, and since the gravitational force is a long range one it is of the property of superposition, that the neighboring “WG” particle cannot be combined into a larger particle by universal gravity. Yet, the cloud of droplets of the light matter can be produced due to the total pressure effect of cosmic dark matter or the “WG ether” (just like a liquid droplet in the saturate that is produced by surrounding vapour). In the following we will discuss the mechanism of strong interaction.

The mathematical method is to take a differential volume at the center of the universe. It is a vacuum with respect to “WG”. The calculation of the pressure acted by “WG ether” on the volume is a generalized integral, the upper limit of which must extend to infinity (its radius of the universe actually). The integral constant is determined by the boundary condition. Combining the above method with a reasonable approximation we can simplify the calculation to get the correct result.

    Following are the details about Strong Interaction and The Macro Effect of the “WG ether”.

 `          In the previous section I approached how the elementary particle consisted of WG. The essence is to study the mechanism of strong interaction and of the basic body of particles (in short B body in the following text), which is stable when existing in the microscopic world. The preliminary research shows that strong interaction results from the global effect of cosmic light matter.

      Assuming a region with radius r set in the vacuum state of “WG ether”. We can calculate the pressure of the external “WG ether”. Let the “WG” at r apart from the center of sphere exert a force F,

            F  = F1 + F2                                                                      (7.1)

Where

                                                 (7.2)

                                                                         (7.3)

Where Aw is the cross section of WG; F2 is the gravity of interior mass M1 exert on the WG at the surface of sphere and F1 the ether pressure of WG. In the following we use notation T’ as the average kinetic energy corresponding to the temperature T; use notation R as universal constant; notation N is Avergadro’s constant; notation D0 is average mass density in the sphere with radius r; notation rs is the radius of the relativistic universe; notation rB is the radius of the “ B body”.

      Assuming the state equation of gas and Pascal pressure principle are approximately valid, considering

                                                                            (7.4)

    

 Let

                                                                    (7.5)

 

 Deriving equation (7.1) reduce to

 

                                                              (7.6)

Where                     

                                                                         (7.7)

 

     From the boundary condition

                                                                     (7.8)

     

                                                                               (7.9)

 We get

          (7.10)                                                                              

Where           

                                                   (7.11)

If we take rB = 1.4 x 1024 m (LKM unit), the mass of the universe Mu = 1052 kg, RW= 1.38x 10-23 J/K. Further more by mathematical consideration

 

                

             

              

 

            

                (7.12)                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                               

The solution is

                                                             (7.13)

      It satisfies the requirement of the strength of the strong interaction.

      From the result of these calculations, the basis for confirming is reasonable. According to the similar treatment of the pressure of the earth’s atmosphere in the classical physical theory, the gravitational mass could be viewed as concentrated at gravitational center. The resulting formula is consistent with this practice. The strength is Mu order greater than the gravitational force between particles. If Mu takes as much as the total mass of the universe, it will be the same order of measuring the value in strong interaction experiments.

 

A math-physical model of stable elemental particle formation “Basic body of particles”

The conditions in which the “Basic body of particles” are stable.

    Though I have found the origin of strong interaction, but a more important question is what is the condition for forming the “B body”? It is obvious that the “B body” can be formed only in space where the density and the pressure of “WG ether” are very high.

Another problem is that if such a high pressure of “WG ether” exists in the macro cosmos and if there is no other interaction, when a black hole is formed, the volumes will inevitable increase infinitely due to the “WG” pressure and the black hole effect will continue absorbing  “WG”.

Therefore, I have to study further the following cases.

Assuming some light matter “WG” gets condensed in some region (B body) under the action of the cosmic pressure of dark matter. The oscillation could be the Basic moving state to these WG and its oscillating amplitude is approximately scaled to that of the “B body”. Furthermore, even though the cosmic pressure is very high, the “B body” can still emit some oscillation wave energy. The intensity of the emission is proportional to the square of amplitude, that is the square of the scale of “B body”. Such an emission results in energy decreasing and volume contracting.

Another case to consider is about the emission of cosmic light matter. From the spectral strength distribution figure in spectral physics we can see that strength contribution of various frequencies is non-linear. If the wavelength l, which corresponds to the upper part of a cosmic emission frequency, is less than the scale of the “B body”, it will permeate into the “B body”, and will be absorbed partly by the “B body”. The physical consequence of this is the weakening the pressure on the “B body”. On the other hand, the absorbed “WG” will increase the oscillation energy and expand the volume of the “B body”. In the mean time the radiation emitted from the “B body” will increase. Only the cosmic radiation that’s wavelength is longer than the scale of the “B body” will reflect from the surface of the B body and induce a pressure effect on it.

      Under the above-mentioned situations we can discuss the following regulated mechanism. When a “B body” absorbs some mass and energy from cosmic radiation, of a quantity that equals that of the emissions from it. The “B body is set in an dynamically equilibrium state. This is to say that the “B body” is provided with the condition to exist in a stable state. We can see that this dynamically equilibrium state reveals an objective “granule” of the “B body”.

    Also this dynamically equilibrium state reveals a very important fact that the scale and the mass of the stable “B body” are unique. This conclusion can also be deduced by a quantitatively calculation.

 

“Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”

    It must be said, that the above argument shows that some initial frames possess a very important character I have called the “Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”.

The dynamically equilibrium state of B body implies that the WG ether in its frame possesses the same moving component with its frame. Because all stable matters in a frame must keep the dynamically equilibrium state with the external space of it, i.e. there is the moving WG ether with the same component as the frame has, because all other matter in this frame (especially for object with massive mass) emits the WG every time and everywhere. We call this situation “Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”. This is why we cannot find any interference patterns by Michelson interferometer.

 

      Under strong interaction, the WG tends to condense to form the B body. The volume of the B body increases, as well as the average kinetic energy of the internal WG to counteract correspondingly the strong interaction. In addition there are a variety of WG radiations with different frequencies in the universe. This WG radiation will penetrate into B body, only if its wavelength is comparable with, or less than the average interval between WGs in the B body, i.e. λ < d W (Assuming absorption intensity is I0). Conversely those radiation whose λ > d W will be reflected from the surface of B body, and produce a strong interaction. Because the damping of strong interaction is non-linear, there must exist a λ0, with which the B body remains in an Equilibrium State. This is to say that the radius of the B body is unique, and satisfies the following equation.

              I0  = I = ANdW2                                                          (9.1)

Where I is the intensity of the radiation of B body; N is the number of WG in B body and dW is the average amplitude of oscillation of the WG in B body; A is a constant.

      Outside the B body, there is a central force field, the external WG satisfies the spherical symmetry of Schrodinger equation

                                                      (9.2)

 

The math- physical model of the stable B body and its unique granules character

From the qualitative analysis in the previous section I have found, that the “B body” is in a dynamically equilibrium state of absorbing and emitting the “WG” light matter. Its existence and its granular mass and scale are unique. This conclusion is very important to recent physics. However, it is not enough to study it only qualitatively. According to the mathematical and physical tools and the knowledge I possess, I have been able to study the existence of the “Basic body of particles” more precisely and quantitatively. Because there is a central force field surrounding the “B body”, the strong cosmic pressure is directed to the center of the “B body”. This is equivalent to the gravitational force produced from the center of the “B body” (at least in mathematics). Therefore, it must satisfy Schrodiger’s equation of quantum mechanics.

    It is a classical mathematical problem, much the same as the hydrogen atom problem in mathematical formulae. What needs to be changed is only replacing the interacting term by strong interaction. According to the theory of two-order partial differential equation, if the form and the boundary condition are the same, the solution must be the same. I have obtained the first radius of the “WG”

                                                                     (9.3)  

                                                                             

Where G, mw, Mμ, h is constant so r1 must also be constant.

      Even a reader without the special knowledge and skill on partial differential equation can safely believe the correctness of this solution, because it is one of the most important proven achievements in recent physical mathematics. The physical significance of it is great, as it reveals the mechanism of the quantization of electron charge. This is a significant problem faced by physicists and it needs urgently to be resolved. I will discuss it in a special topic after examining the essential mechanism of the electric interaction.

  Now let me discuss the above solution (9.3)

                                                                    (9.3)

 

      r1 is the first orbit radius of WG. It is a constant. Obviously it is a basis for discussing the quantization of electric charge, i.e. the charge quantity is integer of e. In my solution of equation (9.2), the gaps of energy levels are very small, with the orbits crowding together. When WG fills out the orbits, the following effects take place:

   1. The probability motion of WG will penetrate the B body in term wave energy, and weaken the force field nonlinearly.

   2. The gravitational interaction between WG will produce the energy level crossing, which will result in thinning the region of WG cloud in an optical state, but the number of WG orbits will become larger. The main quantum number n being large; outside the WG cloud the force field will convert into a static electric field due to it decreasing sharply.

      The above-mentioned characteristics determine that there are only three stable states for the B body:

The first being the fulfilled orbit state; the second a space like obit state of WG; and the third a degenerated state (double B body communal WG cloud). It agrees with the fact that there already exist stable proton, electron and neutron.

The above research can be reasonability understood through some relevant physical phenomena and proven theories such as the formation of atomization drops in saturated air. The difference is that the math-physical model in my paper has only one basic body with three stable states corresponding with the proton, electron and the neutron.

 

The energy-mass model of the stable particles and its solutions for stable states.

The collapsing phenomenon in the degeneration of energy levels

      If I had not taken the Degeneration State into account, the solution of the Schrodinger’s equation is an analogy to the hydrogen atom problem. However, it is essentially different from the hydrogen atom construction theory because of the following conditions.

     The energy level crossing of hydrogen is due to the existence of a static electric repulsive force between the orbital electrons. On the other hand, the interaction between the electron and proton at the center of mass is a static electric attractive force. The repulsive force of the orbital electrons may be broad to the interval of energy levels, and decreases the number of orbits in the hydrogen model.

    In the constructive model of “B body”, the energy level can still degenerate, but the interaction between the “WG” is the universal gravitational force. Such a force can reduce and narrow the interval of the energy levels, and increase the number of orbits until it collapses. The collapse mechanism decreases the number of stable states down to only two fundamental stable states.

   1. The fulfilled orbit state, which corresponds to the “B body”, stays in a slightly oscillating state.

   2. The space-like orbiting state corresponding to violated oscillation of the “B body” leads the surrounding “WG cloud” to be thrown off. It is like a sticky lollipop. When it is held steady, the sesame seeds can be held on it. But when we swing it hard, most of them will fly off the lollipop.

    The situations mentioned in (I) and (2) correspond exactly to the elementary particles, namely the proton and electron respectively.

    Certainly, I must consider the coupled state. (In the theory of atom construction there is a similarly coupled orbiting state). The theory that I wish to put is that the proton as well as electron has an identical core. Each of them has a tendency to arrest the “WG cloud” to be placed in a stable state themselves. When the proton and electron are very closed together, they will share the “WG cloud” to form a coupling. This is nothing but the Mass-energy State of the neutron. So why does the neutron exhibit the neutralized character? I will discuss this in the chapters on the essence of electric field. Which will show that this is the best evidence for verifying the coupling principle.

The reasonability of my results above can be verified by much definite theory and physical phenomena, as it can be compared with the normal phenomena of atomization drops in saturated air. Some differences are that the math-physical model in this paper has only one basic body with three stable states corresponding with the proton, electron and the neutron.

The “WG” theory has suggested a model of mass-energy composition for stable elementary particles, grouping other temporal elementary particles under the heading of my research on a non-steady state of the “Basic body of particles”. Particle physics has achieved some success in this field. Many new short lifetime particles were produced by a variety of accelerators by means of collision experiments.

 

The principle for calculating the “WG” mass; and the numerical relation of WG mass and the universe mass

      We believe, when two B bodies get close each other to a critical scale, a repulsive elastic force will be produced. If the mass in the elastic radius is defined as the mass of the B body and let np (ne) be quantum number of full filled (space like) orbit B body, we have

        r p =  rBp =  r1 np2 ;    rBe = r1 ne2                 (9.1-1)

Where rBp and rBe is the radius of core of proton and electron respectively; rp is acting radius of charge of proton. From equation (8.2), when the main quantum number large enough, the number of orbital WG of B body can be calculated by the following formula:

                                                                    (9.1-2)

      Because of sharp decrease of the force field, a reasonable approximation is 2n3 /3. Therefore we get

                                      (9.1-3)

 

      Where M p and Me is the mass of proton and electron respectively. Considering

                                                                   (9.1-4)

 

      And 

                                                                               (9.1-5)

 

  We get

                                       (9.1-6)

 

                   Mu =1053kg                                                              (9.1-7)

 

      Finally

 

                   mW = 3.636 x 10-45 kg                                         (9.1-8)

     

    From the argument about the “Basic body of particles” above mentioned, this “B body” can be summarize as following.

The scale of mass of the stable “B body” in the universe is unique.

There is “WG cloud” surrounding the “B body”, which is governed by the quantum mechanical relation. But, the degeneration of orbit induced by the gravitational force of orbital “WG” gives use to collapse of the “WG cloud”. I.e. the interval of level decrease and the number of orbit increase. A lot of orbit are constrained a very thin layer outside of” B body” with a large main quantum number.

In equation (9.1-2) the “B body” with surrounding “WG cloud” assure that there exist three Stable states in the universe.

The fulfilled orbital state

The space like state (the “B body “as a Core oscillates violently, and the surrounding “WG cloud” disappears).

The coupled state, i.e. Two “B body” shares a common “WG orbital cloud”.

The three stable states correspond to the three stable elementary particles, namely proton, electron and neutron; they are most stables one.

    The four properties of the “B body” provide a method to estimate the mass of the “WG” original particle. It is an approximate method for the order evaluation. In the following we are going to introduce the principle of the calculation.

    As is well known, the mass of proton, electron has been measured correctly in physics. They correspond to the fulfilled orbit and space- like Orbit State of the “B body”. It follows that the difference of mass between a proton and an electron is determined by the mass of the orbital “WG cloud” in a proton because they have same internal core of the “B body”. So I can estimate the number of “WG” original particle by the following method.

    The “WG cloud” outside the “B body” gives raise to the degeneration and even the collapse of the energy level by gravitational interaction. Therefore the relation of the “WG” orbital radius r and the main quantum number are equivalent to the relation in the atom model. The Pauli exclusive principle is obviously suitable, because all of the characters of the “WG” is obtained under the assumption that the Pauli exclusive principle is suitable. Therefore the quantum mechanics provides the method for calculating the relation between the number and main quantum number of the “WG” in the “WG cloud” directly. (In calculation we keep only the first order and ignored the term that is comparable with the lost part induced by the slight oscillation of “B body”)

    In addition the number density of protons is comparable with that of electron. Although electron is a state of space-like orbit, there is still a very thin layer of “WG cloud”. In the calculation of the integrating value includes the region between the shell and the first orbit. Therefore we can use the mass ratio of proton and electron to replace the cubic ratio of their radius without any error.

    According to the above-mentioned principle after appropriate mathematical treatment we can obtain the mass of “WG”:

 

                 mw  =3.63 6 × 10-45 kg.

 

The experimental test and the verification of the theoretical mass of “WG” ― observation on the double star and pulsar

      When we review the experimental data recorded in file, there are at least two of them that have verified the theoretical value of the “WG” mass. The first was an observation in 1960 by De Brogue on the Binary star another was in 1969 by Feinberg on the pulsar. They have found that the rest mass of a photon is about 0.8 ´ 10-39 kg and 10-44 kg. The average value of them is about 10-42 kg. It is completely consist with my theoretical value.

   Please check the web site http://www20.brinkster.com/tzr9 I’ve given the details about verifying and calculation of two observations above mentioned.

 

The equation of motion for the WG original particle 

    Since the WG original particle possesses mass mW= 3.6 x 10-45 kg, we can use the Lagrangian of generalized Maxwell electromagnetic field to describe this mass.

                                                         (10-1)

It is worth mentioning that the term  in (10-1) violates U (1) gauge invariant. There exists an essential difference between Lagrangian (10-1) and that in the Maxwellian theory. Making use of the Euler- Lagrange equation

                                                            (10-2)

       We get the basic equation for the WG original particle

 

                ;                    (10-3)  

Using the definition of field intensity

                Fμν = μ Aν - ∂νAμ

                Aμ=(ψ,A)                                                                   (10-.4)

    Under the Lorentz gauge, the equation of motion for WG original particle can be expressed in terms of electromagnetic potential Aμ. 

               (□ – μ2) A  = 0

               (□ – μ2) ψ  = 0                                                            (10-.5)

 For static WG, equation reduces to 

                                                                           (10-.6) 

      Therefore the Green function of WG equation, i.e. the responsive function of a point source G (r-r’) satisfies the following equation

                           image077.gif (1322 bytes)                              (10-7)

                         G image078.gif (934 bytes) = image079.gif (1291 bytes)                        (10-8)

       If the origin of the coordinate is put on the source point, the static potential can be rewritten

                        image0710.gif (1314 bytes)                                             (10-9)

      Where g is a quantity, characterizing the strength of field intensity. The static field intensity is

  image0711.gif (1823 bytes)            (10-10)

 

Where (μ r) is a dimensionless quantity, and δ<1. Assuming WG original particle cannot drag the “WG ether” too strongly, this means g=0. In the following I will mainly put forward the gravitational effect of “WG”.

 

Further research on subjects about “the math-physical model for the universe consisting of dark matter WG” and “The WG star-A mathematical study about WG composing the entire universe” and “The analytical study for the mass of WG star” please check the web site: http://geocities.com/tongz1 

 

 Major experimental laws in the physical theory on light, electricity, and magnetism.

     The theory of electromagnetism has been based on Coulomb’s, Biot, Savart and Ampere’s laws. Even Maxwellian theory is based on the unified form of these laws. The breakthrough in quantum mechanics that characterises the energy term and quantisation character is only developing as a method to describe electromagnetic properties. As to the question of why and how electric charge interacts and what the essential mechanism of interaction is. These experimental laws cannot be answered. 

 

Two different states of B bodies and their effect of interference – the mechanism of electrical interaction 

      As a model of stable “Basic body of particles” has been established, the essence of the electric and magnetic interaction has become a simple and obvious dynamic problem.

      I have learned from previous research that the state of “Basic body of particles” is a stable system state in the dynamic equilibrium with the cosmic, through absorbing and emitting WG” light matter. The frequency of the radiation of “B body” can be decomposed into two basic components: One is νB, corresponding to the oscillation of  “B body” as a center of mass. The other is νw corresponding to the frequency of the radiation of  “WG cloud” outside of the “B body”. Obviously, the frequency of the center of mass is lower than that of the orbital “WG”, νw >> νB. According to the different stable states both the proton and electron, the former emits mainly νw, named “body with higher frequency”; the electron emits νB, named “body with lower frequency”.

    It is well known in the phenomenon of resonance that two bodies having the same or nearly the same frequency will resonance. In other words, another body can absorb the oscillation of one body. Conversely, if the frequency of them were very different from each other, the oscillation would weaken. This is a resonate principle.

    Let me now discuss a proton set in the space of a neighbouring proton (or an electron set in the neighbouring space of another electron.)

    For any individual proton, the dynamic equilibrium is disturbed. The frequencies of “WG standing wave”, emitted from both neighboring surface are same. The resonance or convection between two protons will happen. Furthermore the resonance is aggravated with the distance decreasing. The dynamic consequence is to repulse each other. It is not too difficult to use a mathematical approach to derive at this point, because the “repulsive force is proportionate to the inverse square of distance”. This is the Coulumb’s repulsive force. The condition for supporting this explanation is that the interaction between “WG original particle” and the standing wave is a long-range wave interaction, and the propagating speed is light speed.

Thinking another situation, when bodies with different frequencies and are close each other (proton in neighbouring space of electron). A difference situation can be shows that the radiation from the opposite surfaces will be suppressed because their intrinsic frequency of “WG” radiation is distinctly different. For each body, the equilibrium with external space has been broken, and the dynamic effect is to attract each other. 

12.3 The intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of electric charge.”

      At this point, I have shown clearly that both of the proton-like bodies with a higher frequency and electron-like body with a lower frequency are at a state of dynamical equilibrium with the universe, possessing the same “B body” at the center of mass. Obviously, the fluxes of the “WG” emitted from the basic cores of proton or electron body individually are the same. This is the intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of an “electric charge”. Also it is the essential reason why it is not possible to find stable fractional charge. Controversially, the “quantisation of electric charge” is powerful evidence to verify this essential mechanism of electric interaction.

 

The theoretical derivation of electric experimental law

The electric quantity and  “WG” flux

      In this chapter, I have argued that the cardinal stable and charged “Basic body of particles” are in fact the well know proton and election, whose cores are identical in mass and radius. They are equilibrium with the whole external system through absorbing and emitting “WG” dynamically. Therefore the cardinal stable electric quantity is identical, ie. The charge is “quantised”. There is no fractional charge in nature. In physical terminology, a stable charged particle, the flux of its “WG” radiation, penetrates through a closed spherical surface and is constant, ie. The electric quantity can be expressed by the total flux of “WG” radiation. Furthermore, the electric interaction can be expressed by exchanging “WG” between neighbouring charged particles. (For instance the number of  “WG” per unit time.)

    In general, physics always mathematizes some physical properties. Mathematics has provided a sophisticated method to calculate the flux that penetrates through a close spherical surface. Making use of a curve surface integral, we can derive “Gaussian law”. Furthermore, according to the law that states that intensity of the wave interaction is proportional to the inverse square of distance between two charges, and proportional to the quantity of electric charge, we can derive Coulomb’s law. The research for the essence of electric interaction leads to a possibility that the famous three experimental laws can be derived from “WG” theory. The method is mature, simple and unquestionably a classical one. (C/f chapter 7 “ the macro effect of the light matter”).

 

The vortex field of dark matter and magnetic field

    The “WG absorbing (or emitting) field” and the “vortex composed field in light matter ether.”

      In the following I am going to discuss magnetic interaction, according to the result of the study on the essence of electric field in the light of “WG” theory. Certainly, I am not concerned about the study of the properties of these functions, but the understanding of the reason by which magnetic interaction is produced and its mechanism. I would like to get an answer to the following question:

      What is magnetic field? Why magnets will attract or repulse each other? Is magnetic field a special substance or some state of the motion of substance?

Formally, varying electric field or moving electrons can induce a magnetic field. First I will discuss the relation between the motion of electrons and a magnetic field. As is mentioned in the previous section, the electron itself is set in a space like Orbital State. It tends to absorb “WG” to a state of fulfilled orbit. While I also consider “the Ampere’s loop current”, the electron in general is, set in probability motion (the probability motion on an atom orbit). It can induce a hole-like vortex field of “WG” through its interaction with “WG ether”.

    When I used the dynamic knowledge to examine the interaction between vortices and/or with electric charge, I found that the interaction was completely consistent with the right/left hand rule in the theory of electromagnetism.

    When using some experimental method to change the state of “proton” into an electron-like state with high frequency, the proton is in a fully filled state, it can induce both a releasing field and vortex field of “WG” forming a complex field, when submitted to oscillation and rotation. The property of the complex field is opposite to the hole-like vortex field of electrons. I define the composed Motion State of “WG” vortex field as magnetic field. In the established math-physical theory, we can easily find a suitable method to deal with the problem mentioned above. 

The mathematical method for deriving electric and magnetic experimental laws theoretically.

      Assuming an electron is set in “Ampere’s electric current” state, and the unit voracity is b0. I can calculate the contribution of the voracity, induced by “Ampere’s current”, to the intensity of the field at point P, i.e. the intensity of the hole-like “WG” vortex, denoted by B. We have 

                                        

      Let the constant K· b0 = b (w b), BW is nothing but the magnetic field strength. It can be measured in the experiment as B (T).

    The curve integral of a plane enclosed by a curve is defined as . If it does not vanish for some curves

                                 

       The resultant component of the interaction of “WG” hole like vortex field, which is parallel to the plane, is not zero. Therefore there is a WG flux (or call it charge flux) in a direction normal to the plane S. this indeed is current effect.

                                

Where, the constant µ0 is a magnetic susceptibility.

      It is distinct from the previous treatment in the electromagnetic theory, which also uses the mathematical method to deal with the “vortex motion”, but it is non-mechanism, i.e. the realm of experimental law. At present I know that using the mathematical method of voracity, the magnetic field can be treated correctly. The essential reason is that magnetic field is indeed the substantial particle and vortex of ether. Its dynamic character of motion is the same as a vortex in fluid.

 

“WG” theory and the principle of introducing complex expression for wave function

      In this paper, I have only preliminarily constructed the system and frame to deal with stable “Basic body of particles” problem. After I intend to study the non-stable “Basic body of particles”, which will cover a larger region of particle physics. Because the static method of “WG” theory is indissoluble with quantum mechanics, it can be included in this region with out a problem. The reason for this is that “WG” theory provides mathematical proof to solve this problem while Schrodingers equation requires a complex expression for wave function to match the calculation and experiments, and provides for it a rigorous mathematical derivation. Here I would like to introduce briefly the principle of the relative number property.

    We usually define on a numerical axis an arrow as positive to specify the positive and negative as shown in Fig. 15-1(1). Mathematics in general requests a complete and sufficient form of solution. If I define the opposite direction of x-axis as positive, this is equivalent to the former Fig 15-1(1). To distinct the latter from I add i on to the latter as in fig. (l5-1(2)). Furthermore I can add i to any number in system 2 to distinct it from a number in system 1. 

      Definition: the transformation from system 1 to system 2 is named as (-i) transformation, and a factor –i is multiply on all numbers of system 1. Similarly, the (ý) transformation is a transformation from system 2 into system l and factor i is multiply to all numbers of system 2. The meaning of i2 = -1 is transform i in system 2 to system 1, i.e. i transformation, so i (i)= -1 

           Fig. 15-1

wpe26.jpg (3971 bytes)

      It is not too difficult to verify that in the complex number realm, the mathematical rule satisfies the mathematical rule of the relative number property principle. The unique worth of this is that it is a correct and convenient method to deal with some problems, which required a mathematical whole solution (complete solution), and the problems that require two or more independent coordinates to deal with the composed system etc.

      Considering a space filled with “WG ether”, to calculate the density of light in the WG ether space, there are two parts that must be taken into account:

The contributions from “WG” pulse particle currents in standing wave form

The contributions from the “WG” ether wave in standing wave form

     Certainly, the complex number (or relative number property) expression is complete.

      There is no need for reticence, in that my approach also has concern with the sensitive problems. That if the “indeterminate principle” should be restricted in application and derivation, and the problem related to the essential reason of the appearance of the infinity in particle physics researching using relativistic quantum mechanics. I hope to publish as early as possible the continuation of this paper.

 

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