Chapter 8


─ “Basic body of particles”

 8.1 The conditions in which the “Basic body of particles” are stable.

    Though I have found the origin of strong interaction, but a more important question is what is the condition for forming the “B body”? It is obvious that the “B body” can be formed only in space where the density and the pressure of “WG ether” are very high.

Another problem is that if such a high pressure of “WG ether” exists in the macro cosmos and if there is no other interaction, when a black hole is formed, the volumes will inevitable increase infinitely due to the “WG” pressure and the black hole effect will continue absorbing  “WG”.

Therefore, I have to study further the following cases.

Assuming some light matter “WG” gets condensed in some region (B body) under the action of the cosmic pressure of dark matter. The oscillation could be the Basic moving state to these WG and its oscillating amplitude is approximately scaled to that of the “B body”. Furthermore, even though the cosmic pressure is very high, the “B body” can still emit some oscillation wave energy. The intensity of the emission is proportional to the square of amplitude, that is the square of the scale of “B body”. Such an emission results in energy decreasing and volume contracting.

Another case to consider is about the emission of cosmic light matter. From the spectral strength distribution figure in spectral physics we can see that strength contribution of various frequencies is non-linear. If the wavelength l, which corresponds to the upper part of a cosmic emission frequency, is less than the scale of the “B body”, it will permeate into the “B body”, and will be absorbed partly by the “B body”. The physical consequence of this is the weakening the pressure on the “B body”. On the other hand, the absorbed “WG” will increase the oscillation energy and expand the volume of the “B body”. In the mean time the radiation emitted from the “B body” will increase. Only the cosmic radiation that’s wavelength is longer than the scale of the “B body” will reflect from the surface of the B body and induce a pressure effect on it.

      Under the above-mentioned situations we can discuss the following regulated mechanism. When a “B body” absorbs some mass and energy from cosmic radiation, of a quantity that equals that of the emissions from it. The “B body is set in an dynamically equilibrium state. This is to say that the “B body” is provided with the condition to exist in a stable state. We can see that this dynamically equilibrium state reveals an objective “granule” of the “B body”.

    Also this dynamically equilibrium state reveals a very important fact that the scale and the mass of the stable “B body” are unique. This conclusion can also be deduced by a quantitatively calculation.

8.2 “Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”

It must be said, that the above argument shows that some initial frames possess a very important character I have called the “Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”.

The dynamically equilibrium state of B body implies that the WG ether in its frame possesses the same moving component with its frame. Because all stable matters in a frame must keep the dynamically equilibrium state with the external space of it, i.e. there is the moving WG ether with the same component as the frame has, because all other matter in this frame emits the WG every time and everywhere. We call this situation Effective dragging WG ether indirectly”. This is why we cannot find any interference patterns by Michelson interferometer.

      Under strong interaction, the WG tends to condense to form the B body. The volume of the B body increases, as well as the average kinetic energy of the internal WG to counteract correspondingly the strong interaction. In addition there are a variety of WG radiations with different frequencies in the universe. This WG radiation will penetrate into B body, only if its wavelength is comparable with, or less than the average interval between WGs in the B body, i.e. λ < d W (Assuming absorption intensity is I0). Conversely those radiation whose λ > d W will be reflected from the surface of B body, and produce a strong interaction. Because the damping of strong interaction is non-linear, there must exist a λ0, with which the B body remains in an Equilibrium State. This is to say that the radius of the B body is unique, and satisfies the following equation.

      I0  = I = ANdW2            (9.1)

Where I is the intensity of the radiation of B body; N is the number of WG in B body and dW is the average amplitude of oscillation of the WG in B body; A is a constant.

      Outside the B body, there is a central force field, the external WG satisfies the spherical symmetry of Schrodinger equation


   8.3 The math- physical model of the stable B body and its unique granules character

From the qualitative analysis in the previous section I have found, that the “B body” is in a dynamically equilibrium state of absorbing and emitting the “WG” light matter. Its existence and its granular mass and scale are unique. This conclusion is very important to recent physics. However, it is not enough to study it only qualitatively. According to the mathematical and physical tools and the knowledge I possess, I have been able to study the existence of the “Basic body of particles” more precisely and quantitatively. Because there is a central force field surrounding the “B body”, the strong cosmic pressure is directed to the center of the “B body”. This is equivalent to the gravitational force produced from the center of the “B body” (at least in mathematics). Therefore, it must satisfy Schrodiger’s equation of quantum mechanics.

    It is a classical mathematical problem, much the same as the hydrogen atom problem in mathematical formulae. What needs to be changed is only replacing the interacting term by strong interaction. According to the theory of two-order partial differential equation, if the form and the boundary condition are the same, the solution must be the same. I have obtained the first radius of the “WG”



Where G, mw, Mμ, h is constant so r1 must also be constant.

      Even a reader without the special knowledge and skill on partial differential equation can safely believe the correctness of this solution, because it is one of the most important proven achievements in recent physical mathematics. The physical significance of it is great, as it reveals the mechanism of the quantization of electron charge. This is a significant problem faced by physicists and it needs urgently to be resolved. I will discuss it in a special topic after examining the essential mechanism of the electric interaction.

  Now let me discuss the above solution (9.3)



      r1 is the first orbit radius of WG. It is a constant. Obviously it is a basis for discussing the quantization of electric charge, i.e. the charge quantity is integer of e. In my solution of equation (9.2), the gaps of energy levels are very small, with the orbits crowding together. When WG fills out the orbits, the following effects take place:

   1. The probability motion of WG will penetrate the B body in term wave energy, and weaken the force field nonlinearly.

   2. The gravitational interaction between WG will produce the energy level crossing, which will result in thinning the region of WG cloud in an optical state, but the number of WG orbits will become larger. The main quantum number n being large; outside the WG cloud the force field will convert into a static electric field due to it decreasing sharply.

      The above-mentioned characteristics determine that there are only three stable states for the B body:

The first being the fulfilled orbit state; the second a space like obit state of WG; and the third a degenerated state (double B body communal WG cloud). It agrees with the fact that there already exist stable proton, electron and neutron.

The above research can be reasonability understood through some relevant physical phenomena and proven theories such as the formation of atomization drops in saturated air. The difference is that the math-physical model in my paper has only one basic body with three stable states corresponding with the proton, electron and the neutron.

 8.4 The energy-mass model of the stable particles and its solutions for stable states.

The collapsing phenomenon in the degeneration of energy levels

      If I had not taken the Degeneration State into account, the solution of the Schrodinger’s equation is an analogy to the hydrogen atom problem. However, it is essentially different from the hydrogen atom construction theory because of the following conditions.

     The energy level crossing of hydrogen is due to the existence of a static electric repulsive force between the orbital electrons. On the other hand, the interaction between the electron and proton at the center of mass is a static electric attractive force. The repulsive force of the orbital electrons may be broad to the interval of energy levels, and decreases the number of orbits in the hydrogen model.

    In the constructive model of “B body”, the energy level can still degenerate, but the interaction between the “WG” is the universal gravitational force. Such a force can reduce and narrow the interval of the energy levels, and increase the number of orbits until it collapses. The collapse mechanism decreases the number of stable states down to only two fundamental stable states.

   1. The fulfilled orbit state, which corresponds to the “B body”, stays in a slightly oscillating state.

   2. The space-like orbiting state corresponding to violated oscillation of the “B body” leads the surrounding “WG cloud” to be thrown off. It is like a sticky lollipop. When it is held steady, the sesame seeds can be held on it. But when we swing it hard, most of them will fly off the lollipop.

    The situations mentioned in (I) and (2) correspond exactly to the elementary particles, namely the proton and electron respectively.

    Certainly, I must consider the coupled state. (In the theory of atom construction there is a similarly coupled orbiting state). The theory that I wish to put is that the proton as well as electron has an identical core. Each of them has a tendency to arrest the “WG cloud” to be placed in a stable state themselves. When the proton and electron are very closed together, they will share the “WG cloud” to form a coupling. This is nothing but the Mass-energy State of the neutron. So why does the neutron exhibit the neutralized character? I will discuss this in the chapters on the essence of electric field. Which will show that this is the best evidence for verifying the coupling principle.

The reasonability of my results above can be verified by much definite theory and physical phenomena, as it can be compared with the normal phenomena of atomization drops in saturated air. Some differences are that the math-physical model in this paper has only one basic body with three stable states corresponding with the proton, electron and the neutron.

 8.5 The elementary particle with a short lifetime and the non-stable state of particles

The readers may have realized that the issue in this paper is concerned about one of the most important and leading topics. Here we have used only very simple but fundamental math-physical method. Yet, the conclusion given by the stable state of “Basic body of particles” corresponds to and is in complete agreement with the stable particle among all elementary particles. This is result would be unexpected by leading theoretical physicists. Using the “WG” theory to study the essential mechanism of the propagation of light, I have verified that the premises of quantum mechanics, i.e. the quantization of’ particle momentum is correct and consisted with wave-particle standing wave pattern of the “WG” theory. The “WG” theory has suggested a model of mass-energy composition for stable elementary particles, grouping other temporal elementary particles under the heading of my research on a non-steady state of the “Basic body of particles”. Particle physics has achieved some success in this field. Many new short lifetime particles were produced by a variety of accelerators by means of collision experiments.