Chapter 4


 4.1 The four central points of the WG theory and evidence

 1. The light matter with its composed particles WG fills all the universal space and permeates into micro-world

Fist of all, I must point out that this central point is not a hypothesis, but a fact that has been verified by the astrophysics and the elementary particle physics, especially by the discovery of dark matter.

According the contents of chapters 1 and 2 dark matter, which actually is a kind of light matter, and is composed of the original gravitational particle, we call it the WG. The further qualitative and quantitative verifying refers to the chapters 1, 3, 4, and 5.

 Evidence 1.  Microwave radiation

Using the Hubble telescope, astrophysicists have observed that there is microwave radiation with intensity of 2.7k in the depth of the universe. It is an irrefutable fact that there is light matter in the whole of the universe.


Evidence 2. Exchanging photons between the elementary particles.

Furthermore, the elementary particle physics have shown that emission or absorption of photon quanta always accompanies the interaction between particles. Surely it is irrefutable evidence that light matter exists in the space between micro particles.

2. The light matter WG possesses the character of the universal gravitational force.

The verification about the existence of “dark matter”, and the fact that the light deflects in the gravitational field has already proved this central point.

3. All of the elementary particles consist of light matter WG.

When I began to address this problem, some physicists censured me regardless of their level of understanding. Fortunately the physical experiments supported my point of view and show this point unquestionably.

 Evidence 1. The annihilation of elementary particles

    As is well known in elementary particle physics, when an electron interacts with a positron, both particles will annihilate into light energy

                  e -        +         e +   ®       g

Some annihilation can happen to a proton and an antiproton. In fact all of the elementary particles have their corresponding antiparticles, and so particle-antiparticle can annihilate into light energy.

 Evidence 2. The absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles.

It is worthwhile to emphasize the fact that the absorption and / or emission of light energy inevitably accompany all interactions between elementary particles. This fact is a satisfactory and necessary condition for central point 3 to be valid. This is the most fundamental fact, and is similar to the fact that all substances consist of molecules, and all molecules consist of atoms. They are a complete analogy.

In fact there is much experimental data that can verify the above three central points sufficiently to accept as proven. I will just quote two examples to demonstrate this.

 Evidence 3. All kind of matter commonly possesses a gravitational force.

Physics has verified that all matter, micro or macro, for example, the galaxy, earth; a piece of wood, a molecule, an atom and even an elementary particle, all commonly possess a gravitational force.

 Evidence 4. Physics has already verified that the total energy of matter is .

Furthermore, this energy formula of matter adapts all kind of objects such as atoms, molecules, the earth, the galaxy and so on are all composed of light matter.

For  matter with a mass of M, its greatest  energy is when it is converted into light matter. According to the wave theory and optical theory, the kinetic energy of light waves equals the potential energy of it. Moreover, the classical calculation of the electrimeganitic wave theory has shown that,

                    Kinetic energy  =  

This means that the total energy must be:                               


4. This light matter, i.e. the dark matter in the universe constructs “velocity ether”

Actually, this central point is a direct consequence from the first three main points. The name “velocity ether” comes from the famous physicist P.A.M.Dirac, who has suggested in his research work that there must exist something like ether. The main property of which is “velocity ether”. Regretfully, in the past several years physicists deemed that light was not matter, but pure energy. It would be a particle without mass. However the facts shows that light matter possesses gravitational interaction, fills up all universal space and seeps into the micro-world. We know that the strength of gravitational interaction is too weak to bind particles to form a bigger particle and gravitational interaction between WGs is a kind of long-range interaction. While in the short range it must induce some elastic repulsive force so that light matter in the universal space possesses all properties that ether must possess. Moreover, it inevitably interacts with micro as well as macro substances. The average velocity of light matter is light velocity c. Therefore, the name velocity ether matches reality.

4.2 WG theory and classical “ether” hypothesis

At this point I must take the trouble to elaborate the essential difference between WG theory and classical ether hypothesis. At first sight, due to the failures in the classical “ether” hypothesis, some would assert that my theory is following along the same line. But as will be seen later, it is not so simple.

It is well known, the classical “ether” hypothesis is founded on a subjective basis. It assumed that there was an absolute static “ether”, which filled up all of the space in the universe and, even permeated the micro-world. It must therefore be a carrier for propagated motion and its shear coefficient must be 1000 times greater than that of irons shear coefficient. At the end of 19th century many experiments were designed to test the velocity of ether with respect to other matter. The Michelson’s experiment on the ether drag effect is a famous one. But no interference pattern was detected in this experiment.

In contrast to the classical ether theory, the “velocity ether” of light matter is not a subjective hypothesis. Its existence has been confirmed by all of the experiments on microwave background radiation and elementary particle. In my theory the “velocity ether” is not static. The part of the “velocity ether” can be in different motions due to the interaction of a gravitational field. For example, the gravitational field of the earth can drag the air above it, and in inner space between the air molecules there is certain light matter emitted from air molecules which is also the medium of light propagation and it has the same moving component with the air structure. It seems like the air in turn can drag "the light matter ether". In this respect the Michelson’s experiment is nothing but powerful evidence for my theory. After studying some math-physical models provided in the following text (Refer to the chapter 6 STABLE ELEMENTAL PARTICLE – a math- physical model of "Basic body of particles"), readers could see more clearly and directly the mechanism of how the atmosphere drags "the light matter ether".

 Another important reason, according to physicists who have negated the classical “ether” hypothesis, is the shear coefficient that must be 1000 times greater than that of iron. What is the shear coefficient that the light matter ether possesses in my theory? As the “light matter” possesses universal gravitational nature, it is a long-range interaction, whose average velocity is light velocity c. Therefore it is self-evident for light matter to have this peculiar shear coefficient. In fact, the light matter is a perfect medium for propagating event information.

For comparison, we have written down some properties of both classical “ether” and light matter WG ether” in table 4-1 

                                   Table 4.1 

Name of ether


Property of existence

Property of motion

Shear coefficient

Classical ether

Subjective hypothesis

Absolute rest

Can’t be greater than

1000 times of iron’s

Light matter

WG ether

Fills whole universe; permeates in micro world

Gravitational interaction; relative motion

Propagating light state

4.3 The photon quanta and the WG light matter

There exists a state of original particle of light matter but it is not the photon quantum hn. I call it WG as mentioned in this paper. The light matter WG possesses has a gravitational character. In chapter 5 I have worked out its theoretical level of mass order that is 3.6 x 10-42 g and perfectly agrees with the experimental value. Obviously the WG fills up all space in the universe and permeates into the micro world between elementary particles.

According to the description of WG theory the photon quantum is a phenomenon of wave-particle interference in the space filled with light matter WG. It is a kind of standing wave in mathematical form. Certainly it has been confirmed by the discovery of “dark matter”. The nature of photon quantum hn (n can get the value from 0 to infinite) has been described as the character of the standing wave, it means that no actual particle state of photon exist in the space of light propagation and it is a certain quantity of WG that the object system emits or absorbs when it is stimulated. The character of WG determines the value of h and the relations of “Schrödinger” equation of the object system determine the value of n. Further more we know the theory of matter wave has been verified, and is revealed in the math form of hn can characterize all matter or objects. So the wave-particle duality proves that the light propagation depends on some medium not as the relativists exert that light propagates in a vacuum without any medium or carrier and it is pure energy.