** ****Chapter
14**

**THE
FORMATION OF THE “BASIC BODY OF PARTICLES” AND THE COSMIC BIG BANG
**

**
**

**14.1 The condition for the “Basic body of
particles” are formed**

In chapter 8, I have
discussed the stable “Basic body of particles” and its three stable states,
namely proton, electron and neutron. Their physical state has been verified as
being very stable in a dynamic equilibrium state. The emission- absorption
equilibrium with the whole galaxy is a non-linear, self-controlled and regulated
state. There exists an equilibrium point. The component light “WG” original
particle will fly away only when it is impacted, or stimulated by some
high-energy particle. In this case, the dynamic state will be at the
in-equilibrium completely. The physical
information has shown that the lifetime of proton is more than 10^{31}
years.

It
can be noted that the principles I have described so far explain only the
mechanism and a mathematical model for the stable “Basic body of particles”
existing in the universe after it was formed. But not how, or under what
conditions, and in what stage of the development of the universe these particles
were formed.

Unquestionable
the relative density of the “Basic body of particles” is extremely large,
and a strong interaction exists only in extremely short ranges, i.e. in the
region of the radius of the “Basic body of particles”. Further more there
must be an amount of light “WG”, at least as much as the mass of electrons
and such amount of WG must be concentrated in the region of the radius of the
“Basic body of particles”. Only a substantial entity with such great density
can resist the pressure of strong interaction and establish a dynamic
equilibrium to form what is called “Basic body of particles”.

According to my calculation, the amount of light matter “WG”
in a cubic centimetre of cosmic space with the current density is to be
compressed into a volume of 5 x 10^{-25} cm to create one proton. (The
basic data for the calculation: the mass of the universe is 10^{53} kg;
the radius of the universe is 10^{11} ly; the mass of a proton is
1.7 x I0^{-24} g; the scale of the atom is 10^{-8} cm).
Certainly at present I cannot find a compact substance to construct a container
in which we could compress “WG
ether”. Therefore in cosmic space the stable elemental particles cannot be
produced in quantity. Maybe in future when the magnetic field compressive
technology develops (if it ever does so) to a certain stage, we could compress
the cosmic “WG ether” to the required density that would be needed in the
creation of a proton and electron. However to my knowledge, the present level of
the compressive technology can only produce some solid hydrogen.

**14.2
The cosmology theory
**

My research has surprisingly
revealed not only the harmony in principle, between the “WG” theory and such
modern fundamental physics as the theory of quantum mechanics, Maxwellian theory
on the electromagnetism, etc, but also a close relation with the “cosmology”
theory. My work on the conditions and time for the formation of “Basic body of
particles” demonstrates a perfect coincidence with cosmology theory.

In
the following section I would like to introduce the current “cosmology”
theory and its achievements briefly.

It is commonly accepted that Einstein’s general theory of relativity
plus Hawking’s quantum cosmology has described the evaluation of the universe.
The concept that the universe is finite but with no boundary has completely
broke down the ingrained belief that the universe is infinite with no boundary.
Furthermore it has been proved that about 1.5×10^{13 }years ago the
whole of cosmic matter, space and time were constrained in a tiny space as large
as an egg. Out of this region there was nihilist, a state without time, space or
matter. The time and space began from a cosmic singularity 1.5 × 10^{13 }years
ago. The big bang means the explosive inflation of the universe, space and time.
The present cosmos is expanding at a given speed. (The speed of a galaxy to the
centre of the universe is v = H_{0} · R, H_{0} = 150 km/sec·10^{7}
ly, namely Hubble’s constant) Some experiments seem to verify the main point
of the “cosmology” theory. Among which the refraction of light ray in a
gravitational field, of which the relativity theory cites as an example of the
action of the gravitational field on the time and space, and the bent space-time
caused by cosmic mass. Consequently the mathematical method also changes from
Euclidean to Riemann’s geometry. In the experiment on the mercury precession,
physicists think that the new method gives more precise data than that which was
given by the Newtonian mechanics, and agree with other such experiments. Another
achievement is the discovery of Hubble.

In the 1920’s, Mr. Hubble studied the spectra from the surrounding
galaxies, and discovered many dark lines in most of the spectra of stars; this
means that the atoms in the atmosphere of the stars had absorbed some spectra
lines with fixed wavelengths. It is well known to scientists that every chemical
element produces some characteristic absorption line in spectrum, whose
wavelength has been identified through experimental measurement. However, the
spectral lines of absorption Hubble discovered demonstrate a red shift from the
identification line determined in experiments.

According to Doppler effect theory, this red shift implies the light
source (galaxy) is moving away from the observer, because the theory tells us if
the light source is moving away from the observer the received wave has a longer
wave length, otherwise the received wave length will be shorter.

In 1929, Hubble studied 24 galaxies, and after he had
measured their spectral lines, he discovered that all of them are moving away
from us. Furthermore, he discovered the speed of the galaxy increases in direct
proportion to the distance apart from us. Obviously, Hubble’s experimental
data on the redshift of spectral line confirms the prediction of universe
expansion qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Hubble’s relation is one of
the most outstanding discoveries in astrophysics of this century. It
gigantically changed man’s concept about the universe. It reveals the fact,
that the universe is an expanding one, not static one.

**14.3
The “WG” theory and “cosmology”
**

I
would like to compare “WG” theory with cosmology theory. It was found that
the research principal, mathematical method and basic interaction in both
theories are almost the same and can be described as follows:

The interaction between the researching objects in
“cosmology” theory and that of issued in “WG” theory between the
macro celestial bodies, it is really the universal gravitational interaction.

Some conditions in the so-called total galaxy celestial
body in WG theory or the unique universe in modern astrophysics satisfies the
premise for deriving Lorenz transformation; the calculation with the
relativistic method gives enough precision.

The method of quantum mechanics is the basic mathematical
method in the “WG” theory. Therefore both WG theory and modern physics give
many identical conclusions in cosmology.

**14.4
The “primitive fire ball” and the first 10 ^{-35}~ 10^{-4}
second after the big bang.**

First I would like to introduce the physical conditions and mechanism
based on which the basic body of particles can be formed.

Obviously, during the historic period 10^{-35} ~ 10^{-4}
second after the big bang, the number density of “WG” particles reached
maximum, and satisfying the condition for the creation of “Basic body of
particles”. The density condition is cardinal. Once the “Basic body of
particles” has been formed i.e. it formed a stable elementary particle
according to the mechanism, of which I have put forward in chapters 7 and 8.

**14.5
Some questions that need reconsidering and correcting in
“cosmology.”
**

I have discovered and recorded in chapter 3 that strong interaction
resulted from the macro effect of light matter, which is also the essential
cause for the formation of the “Basic body of particles”. I have found that
the strength of strong interaction is inevitably connected in number with the
mass of assembled celestial bodies in the galaxies (10^{53}kg)
numerically. Furthermore, 95% of total mass is indeed WG ether” spreading in
all universal space, which is called dark matter in the astrophysics. These
findings are all based on the discussions and calculations concerning
gravitational essence of matter.

Accordingly the common existence of the red shift of the spectral line of
celestial bodies in the galaxies, modern astrophysicists believe that the
assembled celestial body of galaxies is expanding; this is governed by the
expanding rule, i.e. the speed of any galaxy moving away from the center of

Universe is

V = H_{0} · R

This speed is directly proportion to the distance from the center of the
celestial body. Here H_{0} =150km/ sec 10^{9} ly this is
Hubble’s constant.

Considering the fact that “WG ether” matter will
inevitably cause a damping loss to light rays in its propagating, it has not yet
been taken into account in “cosmology” theory, certainly the H needs to be
corrected. If I also affirm that all substance, including the galaxy itself in
assemble celestial bodies of galaxies are flying away from the center of the
universe at same time. In other words, no matter what position a galaxy may take
at present, it is as old as any other galaxy (the age is represented by T),
which can be evaluated from the Hubble constant. In fact from the definition of
the constant, the speed of a galaxy is 150 km /second if it is 10^{9} ly
apart from the centaur of universe. Let T= 1/ H_{0}, in unit meter we
obtain T = 2 ´
10^{10} y, which is a rough number of the age of the universe.

This means that about 10^{10} ly ago, there was a black hole with
a mass of 10^{53}kg, which exploded, and the relic of it is the present
substantial universe. “WG” theory has drawn some different conclusions from
“cosmology”. For example, “WG” theory does not take the visible
substantial world as the only substance in space. In other words, it does not
take this visible substantial world being studied as a unique cosmic substance;
doubting if any other expanding or contracting assembles of substance exist. The
reason is that “WG” theory has proved Einstein’ Relativity is only a
relative truth with lots of contra-evidence. It is valid in certain areas just
to estimate some physical values. The theory is established on the appearance
phenomena of light, but it proves nothing about the mechanism of light’s
propagation and its essence and is short of an explanation on the physical
mechanism of the action of gravitational force on space-time.

The “WG” theory
points out that gravitational force acting on the “WG”
original particle should be same just the gravitational force acting between
substances. Although at present the “WG” theory, as any other theory, cannot
explain why the “WG” original particle possesses universal gravity, or what
is the mechanism of gravitational interaction. According to the study on
electromagnetic field and strong interaction, I have found the “WG” original
particle itself is composed of unknown matter. It is composed of smaller
particles with a faster motion (for example faster than the speed of light).
Therefore we cannot assert that the universe is unique because from the research
on the universe it has been proved that even photon cannot escape. The “WG”
theory does not confirm any issue that cannot be explained or studied by current
theories and so is a self-consisted logic, that does not make use of any theory
or research that can prove nothing and as such accomplishes nothing.

It is true that the initial volume of the assemble celestial body of
galaxies was indeed extremely small, but why should it be that perhaps other
substances cannot escape simple because light matter cannot escape? Doubtless
the universal gravity has a working mechanism, which prevents me from jumping to
this conclusion.

The fireball, initialled by the gravitational force, does not have a
definite mechanism of explosion on the physical principle and energy relation.
However the big bang hypnosis itself has verified that there existed two or more
primitive fireballs, whose collision between each other produced the expansion
of this substantial universe of ours. For this reason, we call the universe in
cosmology theory an assemble celestial body of galaxies.

Although “WG” theory believes and has verified that light, which
possesses gravitational property, will bend under the action of gravitational
field. It is completely different in both mechanism and explanation of the
essence from that of general relativity theory, which holds that space-time
bends under the action of gravitational force. Yet I still believe that the
mathematical treatment of general relativity in its valid realm is acceptable.
As is well known, the ancient calendar was made on the basis of the assumption
that sun rotated around earth. Even today it still remains a practical calendar,
being applicable to everyday life, though the modern science has completely
verified that the Earth is rotating around the sun. As a scientist Einstein is
still held in high estimation for his contributions, and his achievements in
physics and mathematics, which have brought and will bring benefits to mankind.
However, one must from time to time remind oneself that he should have
approached the issues concerning the essential mechanism in the realm where
relativity is not applicable according to the essential law of objects, with a
serious and scientific attitude.

14.6 The math-physical method for researching on the Big Bang theory and the particle process.

Let me go back 2 ´
10^{10} years ago, when the Big Bang took place with a mass order of 10^{53}
kg. For research on the primate fireball, I have mainly use the thermodynamic
method. The temperature of the fire ball is in proportion to the inverse of
scale factor of the assemble system

(14-1)

At an early stage of the Big Bang, when R was very small, the temperature
of radiation could have been very high. It is worth noting that T is only the
temperature of radiation, a higher T does not mean a high temperature of the
whole system.

According to thermodynamics, the mass density of black body radiation is
governed by the following rule

ρ_{γ} =
λ T_{γ}^{4}_{ } (14-2)

Where l
= 8.418x10^{-36} g cm^{-3} degree ^{–4}

From (14-1) and (14-2) we get

(14-3)

On the other hand, the mass density of baryon mainly comes from the mass
m, ie. r_{g}
= n×m,
where n is number density of particle. From the conservation of number of
particle we have

N =4p×n×R^{3}
/ 3 \
n µ
1 / R^{4}

Therefore

(14-4)

From
(14-2) and (14-4) we get

(14-5)

__
__

__
__

Or rewritten as

(14-6)

Where (ρ_{r}
/ ρ_{m})_{0 }and R_{0} represent the present value
of ratio of mass density and cosmic scale factor for respectively. Equation
(14-6) implies that the ratio of radiation of “WG” light matter and mass
density is not invariant but decrease with the expanding of the system
continuously. At present, the ratio is very small, being about

(ρ_{r}
/ ρ_{m})_{0} ≤
10^{-3}
(14-7)

Though at early stage,

(ρ_{r}
/ ρ_{m}) ≤
10^{3}
(14-8)

Obviously, there was a time when (ρ_{r} / ρ_{m})
> 1, i.e. radiation dominated. At that time, the temperature of radiation was
indeed the temperature of the universe.

Form (14-1) we get

Tγ = (Tγ
)_{0} ∙ (R_{0} / R)
(14-9)

Where
(Tγ )_{0} =
2.7K being the present value of the radiation temperature. When Tγ
> 2.7 x 10^{3} K ≈ 3000K, it means that the system is
fully filled with high temperature radiation in which particles float. This
state is called primitive fireball. The whole period when T was higher than
3000K is the period of the creation of “Basic body of particles”.

According
to the primitive fireball model, the earlier the universe is, the higher its
temperature is, because the temperature is an inverse proportion to the scale of
the universe. Based on this qualitative relation and the expanding model also, a
table of thermal history of the universe is given in table 14-1

Table
14-1

Age
(second) |
Temperature (K) |
Energy |
Physical process |

10 10 |
10 10 |
10 10 |
Quantum
gravity |

10 10 1 |
10 10 10 |
10 10 1
Mev |
Particle
process Nuclear
process |

10 10 |
10 10 |
0.1Mev 0.1ev |
Atom
process |

10 8´10 |
2.7 |
3´10 |
Gravity
proces |

In the
table, “temperature T” and energy ε govern the relation ε = KT,
temperature of the radiation.

At an early stage of the Big bang, the universe stayed in thermal
equilibrium. The principles for judging what kind of particles were in the
thermal equilibrium with a temperature T are that as bellows:

If the particle with mass m satisfies

m c ^{2 } <
KT

According to the “WG” theory, the largest Energy State of a substance
appears when it is fully converted into light matter “WG” radiation. When mc^{2}
< KT there are a lot of such particles in equilibrium state, i.e. the
particles are not entirely converted into a “WG” radiation state. When the
average light energy KT is larger than mass energy (mc^{2}), it is very
easy for such particles to be produced. For example, when T > 10^{13}
K, the number density of the electrons in the system is almost the same as that
of hν unit of the “WG” original particles. When T >10^{13}
K, the number density of proton is almost the same as that of hν unit of
“WG” original particles.

If a particle with mass m satisfies

m c^{2} > KT

The number density of such particles must be far smaller than that of
“WG” original particles in hν unit. They are practically condensed in
some type of lump of substance (for instance the formation of the galaxy).

In the stage of T< 3000K, the main interaction between cosmic
substances is gravity. The basic physical phenomenon is shift from homogeneous
state to inhomogeneous state and the state that contains stars inside. The
theoretical analysis of this stage roughly agrees with the observed data on the
whole.

It is worth mentioning that the asymmetry between particle- antiparticle;
baryon and ant-baryon, which is an endless debate in the subject of cosmology
theory, is quite obvious in the “WG” theory. Because the three kinds of
stable basic body of particles will remain so once they came into being in the
early stage of the Big Bang. The so-called antiparticles and other unstable
particles are nothing but the core of the “Basic body of particles” and
instantaneous came out of the surrounding “WG” cloud which relate only with
the energy state of the motion in some parts. Although the particle and
antiparticle would come into being, or be annihilated into light energy in
pairs, it is not the mechanism of their production, only a property of present
condition.