12.1 Major experimental laws in the physical theory on light, electricity, and magnetism.

The
theory of electromagnetism has been based on Coulomb’s, Biot, Savart and
Ampere’s laws. Even Maxwellian theory is based on the unified form of these laws. The
breakthrough in quantum mechanics that characterises the energy term and quantisation
character is only developing as a method to describe electromagnetic properties. As to the
question of why and how electric charge interacts and what the essential mechanism of
interaction is. These experimental laws cannot be answered.

**12.2 Two different states of B bodies and their effect of
interference – the mechanism of electrical interaction**

As a model of stable
“Basic body of particles” has been established, the essence of the electric and
magnetic interaction has become a simple and obvious dynamic problem.

I have learned from
previous research that the state of “Basic body of particles” is a stable system
state in the dynamic equilibrium with the cosmic, through absorbing and emitting WG”
light matter. The frequency of the radiation of “B body” can be decomposed into
two basic components: One is ?_{B}, corresponding to the oscillation of “B body” as a center of mass. The other
is ?_{w} corresponding to the frequency of the radiation of “WG cloud” outside of the “B
body”. Obviously, the frequency of the center of mass is lower than that of the
orbital “WG”, ?_{w} >> ?_{B}. According to the different
stable states both the proton and electron, the former emits mainly ?_{w}, named
“body with higher frequency”; the electron emits ?_{B}, named “body
with lower frequency”.

It is well known in the phenomenon of
resonance that two bodies having the same or nearly the same frequency will resonance. In
other words, another body can absorb the oscillation of one body. Conversely, if the
frequency of them were very different from each other, the oscillation would weaken. This
is a resonate principle.

Let me now discuss a proton set in the
space of a neighbouring proton (or an electron set in the neighbouring space of another
electron.)

For any individual proton, the dynamic
equilibrium in figure 11.1 (b) is disturbed. The frequencies of “WG standing
wave”, emitted from both neighboring surface are same. The resonance or convection
between two protons will happen. Furthermore the resonance is aggravated with the distance
decreasing. The dynamic consequence is to repulse each other. It is not too difficult to
use a mathematical approach to derive at this point, because the “repulsive force is
proportionate to the inverse square of distance”. This is the Coulumb’s
repulsive force. The condition for supporting this explanation is that the interaction
between “WG original particle” and the standing wave is a long-range wave
interaction, and the propagating speed is light speed.

Figure 11 – 1(c) shows the
situation when bodies with different frequencies and are close each other (proton in
neighbouring space of electron). A difference situation can be seen from that in the above
figure, figure 11.1 (b) shows the radiation from the opposite surfaces will be suppressed
because their intrinsic frequency of “WG” radiation is distinctly different. For
each body, the equilibrium with external space has been broken, and the dynamic effect is
to attract each other.

**12.3 The intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of electric
charge.”**

At this point, I have
shown clearly that both of the proton-like bodies with a higher frequency and
electron-like body with a lower frequency are at a state of dynamical equilibrium with the
universe, possessing the same “B body” at the center of mass. Obviously, the
fluxes of the “WG” emitted from the basic cores of proton or electron body
individually are the same. This is the intrinsic origin of the “quantisation of an
“electric charge”. Also it is the essential reason why it is not possible to
find stable fractional charge. Controversially, the “quantisation of electric
charge” is powerful evidence to verify this essential mechanism of electric
interaction.

Fig.11-1

** **

**12.4 The
theoretical derivation of electric experimental law **

It is well
known that electromagnetic theory is based on experimental laws. These laws, however,
reflect only the properties of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic interaction and the
mathematical relation of them. This theory never explains the reason for and the essential
mechanism of interaction. Coulomb’s law or its quantum version has never explained
the attraction between a positive charge and a negative one. Even the quantum theory of
exchanging a photon to produce the electric interaction still cannot answer the following
question: Why do positive and negative charges attract each other? What is the dynamic
mechanism of this attraction? The problem seems very simple, but the law or the energy
relation deduced from it has nothing to do with the dynamic mechanism. Physicists have
suggested that the electric field is a special substance as well as being a magnetic
field. The word “special substance” is used to disguise the fact that we still
do not understand the essential reason for this interaction. Just as in past years, the
scientist use so Call “ burning element” to explain the fire and flame. But
eventually some one found out that the fire was a phenomenon caused by the change of
molecule motion. Fire is due to a change of state of motion, not a special substance so
call burning element.

**12.5 The electric
quantity and “WG” flux **

In this chapter, I have
argued that the cardinal stable and charged “Basic body of particles” are in
fact the well know proton and election, whose cores are identical in mass and radius. They
are equilibrium with the whole external system through absorbing and emitting
“WG” dynamically. Therefore the cardinal stable electric quantity is identical,
ie. The charge is “quantised”. There is no fractional charge in nature. In
physical terminology, a stable charged particle, the flux of its “WG” radiation,
penetrates through a closed spherical surface and is constant, ie. The electric quantity
can be expressed by the total flux of “WG” radiation. Furthermore, the electric
interaction can be expressed by exchanging “WG” between neighbouring charged
particles. (For instance the number of “WG”
per unit time.)

In general, physics always
mathematizes some physical properties. Mathematics has provided a sophisticated method to
calculate the flux that penetrates through a close spherical surface. Making use of a
curve surface integral, we can derive “Gaussian law”. Furthermore, according to
the law that states that intensity of the wave interaction is proportional to the inverse
square of distance between two charges, and proportional to the quantity of electric
charge, we can derive Coulomb’s law. The research for the essence of electric
interaction leads to a possibility that the famous three experimental laws can be derived
from “WG” theory. The method is mature, simple and unquestionably a classical
one. (C/f chapter 7 “ the macro effect of the light matter”).