Chapter1 

THE DISCOVERY OF DARK MATTER

 1.1 The discovery of dark matter and its scientific significance

We are quite familiar with the gravitational effect, which provides us some kind of force in nature. In fact a kind of gravitational matter exists in space, which is called the dark matter having 95% mass of whole universe. Scientists have already proved that the "dark matter" is not dead stars, cosmic dust, hadron, photon or neutrino etc. (Refer to some evidence in following chapter II.)

The discovery of dark matter is a great achievement in physics. Its important scientific signification is as follows:

1.        It indicates that some experiments of relativity are actually false evidences. These facts are explained in the website; http://geocities.yahoo.com/tongz1, also in chapter 3.

2.        It proves that the dark matter is the perfect medium for light propagation. So in my theory we can call it light matter WG or simply WG. (More information about this fact are refered to  in chapter2.)

3.        Dark matter provides the necessary conditions to understand the nature of light propagation and the mechanism of basic interactions such as the strong interaction and electromagntic interaction. It also provides additional information of how the elementary particles are composed of matter. The details are attached in chapter 4.

The Swiss astronomer Ziviky discovered the mystery of dark matter and he provided us with the necessary conditions to modify the facts revealed in Einstein’s special theory of relativity.

 1.2 The research on the existence of dark matter and the evidence of its existence

            In studying and surveying the relation between the speed and position of a rotating body in the spira1 galaxy, Physicists found an anomaly in the rotating curves of the galaxy (Refer to Graph 1-b,) that disagrees with the Kepler‘s theory (see Graph 1-a). Furthermore the speed of the body outside of the luminous region is independent of distance. It implies that a body at a different distance has the same rotating velocity.

    According to the Kepler theorem, the relation of the speed of the planet around the sun v and the radius of the orbit of it are . It means that the rotating velocity of the planet will be smaller as it moves farther away from the sun. (See graph 1-b) The law is valid for any rotation of a body around a massive central body.

          What we can explain for this observed anomaly is that the space surrounding the galaxy is not a vacuum. There is some gravitational mass spread in all space. As the mass cannot be luminous by itself, it is invisible.


 

      Another example was discovered in 1983. An astronomer found, that there is a star named R15, which is 2 x 105 light years away from the center of the Galaxy. Its sight speed is higher than 465 Km /sec. According to the astrophysical theory, such a speed could be induced only if the total mass of the milk galaxy is 10 times greater than its visible mass. This means that nine tenths of the total milk galaxy mass is dark matter.

 

1.3 The “dark matter” is neither dead stars, nor cosmic dust nor hadrons.

        At first scientists believe that the dark matter must be some gas cloud, for example, hydrogen gas (or another element). However in their research on hydrogen, they did not find the 21cm absorption line. These observations have shown that the density of hydrogen cannot be greater than 10-6 / cm3. Furthermore by using more sensitive optical instruments they can assert that the hydrogen density is less than 10-12  / cm3.

        By using a similar optical method we can determine that in the inter galaxy space the dark matter is neither oxygen, lithium, carbon, magnesium, aluminium, iron, sulfur, or silicon… It cannot be any chemical element.

          It can also be excluded, the possibility that the dark matter is ionized gas through surveying the cosmic X-ray. Because a large amount of the cosmic dust can cause dusky sky; physicists excluded the possibility of the existence of the missing mass in term of cosmic dust, or “dead stars”. According to a quantitative calculation, physicists have found that the cosmic dust at most is 1 percentage of the visible star’s mass in any group of galaxies.

           If the missing mass were the dead stars, which would be ten times as big as the visible stars, that would cause more difficulty in the calculation of the orbit. Consequently the calculated result would not agree with the observations. Furthermore, the astrophysicist can also verify that according to the intensity of the cosmic microwave radiation background, the dark matter is not darkened deathbed stars or galaxies.

 1.4 The “dark matter” is neither photon nor neutrino etc

           At present, physicists have found that the number density of the cosmic photons and neutrino are almost the same. Namely there are about 400 per cubic centimeter. The corresponding mass of the photon’s energy is 1.1 10-36 g. Its contribution to the cosmic average mass density is very small:

             4.4 10-34 g /cm3 <<  ro

Where, ro is the critical cosmic density. It follows that the photon quanta cannot be the dark matter (according to the description of the “WG” theory, the “WG” of light matter characterized by hn is not a principal part of the dark matter.)

           However in 1980, some elementary particle physicists claimed that the rest mass of neutrino might be not equals to zero. Especially after an experimental group of Physicists from the previous Soviet Union announced that the rest mass of the electron’s neutrino is about 6 10-32 g. Furthermore; the neutrino number does not decrease with the expansion of the universe. Therefore the contribution of the neutrino to the cosmic density is

                   2.4 10-29 g  / cm3  > ro

     It is well known, when the density of the universe is greater than the critical ro the universe will be finite and closed (the total mass density of the cosmic galaxy is only about 0.05% ro.)

Unfortunately, so far no definite conclusion about the rest mass of neutrino in the physical society has been proved. The particle physicists hope that there some existence of “some-rino”, in which they could find or verify the predicted “dark” particle. Some super-symmetry and super-gravity theories have predicted many new particles, which are not baryon and possess the characters required by invisible matter. However they can not be observed in present laboratories. Thus it remains only as a surmise that the cosmic dark matter is consisted of “some-rino”.

    Is a vacuum relevant to the light propagation? The mass order of dark matter is  much smaller than photon and it fills all of the universe macro or micro space. Is there any practical significance to the “light speed constant” in a vacuum? So Relativists assert the light propagates in a vacuum without any medium or carrier, it is only a surmise without any verification.